HOMILIES OF ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM
ARCHBISHOP OF CONSTANTINOPLE
ON THE SECOND EPISTLE OF
ST. PAUL THE APOSTLE
TO THE CORINTHIANS
HOMILIES XII TO XV (2 COR. 6 & 7)

HOMILY XII.

2 COR. vi. 1, 2.

"And working together with Him we intreat also that ye receive not the grace of God is vain. For he saith, At an acceptable time I hearkened unto thee. And in a day of salvation did I succor thee."

FOR since he said, God beseeches, and we are ambassadors and suppliants unto you, that ye be "reconciled unto God:" lest they should become supine, he hereby again alarms and arouses them, saying: "We intreat that ye receive not the grace of God in vain." 'For let us not,' he says, ' therefore be at ease, because He beseeches and hath sent some to be ambassadors; nay, but for this very reason let us make haste to please God and to collect spiritual merchandise;' as also he said above, "The love of God constraineth us," (ch. v. 14) that is presseth, driveth, urgeth us, 'that ye may not after so much affectionate care, by being supine and exhibiting no nobleness, miss of such great blessings. Do not therefore because He hath sent some to exhort you, deem that this will always be so. It will be so until His second coming; until then He beseeches, so long as we are here; but after that is judgment and punishment.' Therefore, he says, "we are constrained."

For not only from the greatness of the blessings and His loving kindness, but also from the shortness of the time he urgeth them continually. Wherefore he saith also elsewhere, "For now is our salvation nearer." (Rom. xiii. II.) And again; "The Lord is at hand." (Philipp iv. 5.) But here he does something yet more. For not from the fact that the remainder of the time is short and little, but also from its being the only season available, for salvation, he incited them.

For, "Behold," he saith, "now is the acceptable time; behold, now is the day of salvation." Let us therefore not let slip the favorable opportunity but display a zeal worthy of the grace. For therefore is it that we also press forward, knowing both the shortness and the suitableness of the time. Wherefore also he said; "And working together we intreat also. Working together" with you; 'for we work together with you, rather than with God for Whom we are ambassadors. For He is in need of nothing, but the salvation all passeth over to you.' But if it is even with God that he speaks of working together, he repudiates not even this [interpretation]; for he says in another place, "we are God's fellow-workers:" (1 Cor. iii. 9.) in this way, sixth he, to save men. Again, "We entreat also." For he indeed, when beseeching, doth not barely beseech, but sets forth these His just claims; namely, that He gave His Son, the Righteous One that did not so much as know sin, and made Him to be sin for us sinners, that we might become righteous: which claims having, and being God, He displayed such goodness. But what we beseech is that ye would receive the benefit and not reject the gift. Be persuaded therefore by us, and "receive not the grace in vain." For lest they should think that this of itself is "reconciliation," believing on Him that calleth; he adds these words, requiting that earnestness which respects the life. For, for one who hath been freed from sins and made a friend to wallow in the former things, is to return again unto enmity, and to" receive the grace in vain," in respect of the life. For from "the grace" we reap no benefit towards salvation, if we live impurely; nay, we are even harmed, having this greater aggravation even of our sins, in that after such knowledge and such a gift we have gone back to our former vices. This however he does not mention as yet: that he may not make his work harsh, but says only that we reap no benefit. Then he also reminds of a prophecy, urging and compelling them to bestir themselves in order to lay hold of their own salvation.

"For," saith he, "He saith,

"At an acceptable time I hearkened unto thee,

"And in a day of salvation did I succor thee:

"behold, now is the acceptable time: behold, now is the day of salvation."

"The acceptable time." What is this? That of the Gift, that of the Grace, when it is appointed not that an account should be required of our sins nor penalty exacted; but besides being delivered, that we should also enjoy ten thousand goods, righteousness, sanctification, and and all the rest. For how much toil would it have behoved us to undergo in order to obtain this "time !" But, behold, without our toiling at all it hath come, bringing remission of all that was before. Wherefore also He calls it "acceptable," because He both accepted those that had transgressed in ten thousand things, and not acceded merely, but advanced them to the highest honor; just as when a monarch arrives, it is a time not for judgment, but for grace and pardon. Wherefore also He calleth it acceptable. Whilst then we are yet in the lists(1), whilst we are at work in the vineyard, whilst the eleventh hour is left [us], let us draw nigh and show forth life; for it is also easy. For he that striveth for the mastery(2) at such a time, when so great a gift hath been shed forth, when so great grace, will early obtain the prizes. For in the case of monarchs here brow also, at the time of their festivals, and when they appear in the dress of Consuls, he who bringeth a small offering receiveth large gifts; but on the days in which they sit in judgment, much strictness, much sifting is requisite. Let us too therefore strive for the mastery in the time of this gift. It is a day of grace, of grace divine; wherefore with ease even we shall obtain the crown. For if when laden with so great evils He both received and delivered us: when delivered from all and contributing our part, shall He not rather accept us?

[2.] Then, as it is his constant worn, namely, to place himself before them and bid them hence to take their example so he does in this Ver. 3. "Giving no occasion of stumbling, that our ministration(3) be not blamed," Persuading them not from considering "the time" only, but also those that had successfully labored with them. And behold with what absence of pride(4). For he said not, 'Look at us how we are such and such,' but, for the present, it is only to do away accusation that he relates his own conduct. And he mentions two chief paints of a blameless life, "none" in "any" thing. And he said not 'accusation,' but, what was far less, "occasion of stumbling;" that is, giving ground against us to none for censure, for condemnation, "that our ministration be not blamed;" that is, that none may take hold of it. And again, he said not, 'that it be not accused,' but that it may not have the least fault, nor any one have it in his power to animadvert upon it in any particular.

Ver. 4. "But in every thing commending ourselves as ministers of God."

This is far greater. For it is not the same thing to be free from accusation; and to exhibit such a character as in everything to appear "ministers of God." For neither is it the same thing to be quit of accusation, and to be covered(5) with praises. And he said not appearing, but "commending," that is 'proving.' Then he mentions also whence they became such. Whence then was it? "In much patience" he says, laying the foundation of those good things. Wherefore he said not barely "patience," but "much," and he shows also how great it was. For to bear some one or two things is no great matter. But he addeth even snow storms of trials in the words, "In afflictions, in necessities." This is a heightening of affliction, when the evils are unavoidable, and there lies upon one as it were a necessity hardly extricable(6) of misfortune. "In distresses." Either he means those of hunger and of other necessaries, or else simply those of their trials.

Ver. 5. "In stripes, in imprisonments, in tossings to and fro(7)."

Yet every one of these by itself was intolerable, the being scourged only, and being bound only, and being unable through persecution to remain fixed(8) any where, (for this is in 'tossings to and fro,') but when both all, and all at once, assail, consider what a soul they need. Then along with the things from without, he mentions those imposed by himself. Ver. 5, 6. "In labors, in watchings, in fastings; in pureness." But by "pureness" here, he means either chasteness again, or general purity, or incorruptness, or even his preaching the Gospel freely.

"In knowledge." What is" in knowledge?" In wisdom such as is given from God; that which is truly knowledge; not as those that seem to be wise and boast of their acquaintance with the heathen discipline, but are deficient in this

"In long-suffering, in kindness" For this also is a great note of a noble soul, though exasperated and goaded on every side, to bear all with long-suffering. Then to show whence he became such, he added;

"In the Holy Ghost." 'For in Him,' he saith, 'we do all these good works.' But observe when it is that he has mentioned the aid of the Holy Ghost. After he had set forth what was from himself. Moreover, he seems to me to say another thing herein. What then is this? Namely, ' we have both been filled with abundance of the Spirit and hereby also give a proof of our Apostleship in that we have been counted worthy of spiritual gifts.' For if this be grace also, yet still he himself was the cause who by his good works and his toils(1) attracted that grace. And if any should assert that besides what has been said, he shows that in his use of the gifts of the Spirit also he gave none offence; he would not miss of his meaning. For they who received the [gift of] tongues amongst them and were lifted up, were blamed. For it is possible for one even in receiving a gift of the Spirit, not to use it aright. ' But not so we,' he sixth, ' but in the Spirit also, that is, in the gifts also, we have been blameless.'

"In love unfeigned." This was the cause of all those good things; this made him what he was; this caused the Spirit also to abide with him, by Whose aid also all things were rightly done of him. Ver. 7. "In the word of truth."

A thing he says in many places, that 'we continued neither to handle the word of God deceitfully nor to adulterate it.'

"In the power of God." That which he always does ascribing nothing to himself but the whole to God, and imputing whatsoever he hath done aright to Him, this he hath done here also. For since he uttered great things, and affirmed that he had manifested in all things an irreproachable life and exalted wisdom, he ascribes this to the Spirit and to God. For neither were those commonplace things which he had said. For if it be a difficult thing even for one who lives in quiet to do aright and be irreproachable, consider him who was harassed by so great temptations, and yet shone forth through all, what a spirit he was of! And yet he underwent not these alone, but even far more than these, as he mentions next. And what is indeed marvelous is, not that he was irreproachable though sailing in such mighty waves, nor that he endured all nobly, but all with pleasure even. Which things, all, he makes clear to us by the next words, saying,

"By the armor of righteousness on the right and the left."

[3.] Seest thou his self-possession of soul and well-strung spirit? For he shows that afflictions are arms not only which strike not down, but do even fortify and make stronger. And he calls those things 'left,' which seem to be painful; for such those are which bring with them the reward. Wherefore then cloth he call them thus? Either in conformity with the conception of the generality, or because God commanded us to pray that we enter not into temptation.

Ver. 8. "By glory and dishonor, by evil report and good report"

What saying thou? That thou enjoyest honor, and setting down this as a great thing? Yes,' he saith. Why, forsooth? For to bear dishonor indeed is a great thing, but to partake of honor requires not a vigorous(2) soul. Nay, it needs a vigorous and exceeding great soul, that he who enjoys it may not be thrown and break his neck(3). Wherefore he glories in this as well as in that, for he shone equally in both. But how is it a weapon of righteousness? Because that the teachers are held in honor induceth many unto godliness. And besides, this is a proof of good works, and this glorifieth God. And this is, further, an instance of the wise contrivance of God, that by things which are opposite He brings in the Preaching. For consider. Was Paul bound? This too was on behalf of the Gospel. For, saith he, "the things which happened unto me have fallen out unto the progress of the Gospel; so that most of the brethren, bring confident through my bonds, are more abundantly bold to speak the word without fear." (Phil. i. 12, 14.) Again, did he enjoy honor? This too again rendered them more forward. "By evil report and good report." For not only did he bear those things nobly which happen to the body, the ' afflictions, and whatever he enumerated, but those also which touch the soul; for neither are these wont to disturb slightly. Jeremiah at least having borne many temptations, gave in(4) upon these, and when he was reproached, said, "I will not prophesy, neither will I name the Name of the Lord.(5) (Jer. xx.9. ) And David too many places complains of reproach. Isaiah also, after many things, exhorteth concerning this, saying, "Fear ye not the reproach of men, neither be ye overcome by their reviling." (Is. li. 7. LXX.) And again, Christ also to His disciples; ,' When they shall speak all manner of evil against you falsely, rejoice and be exceeding glad," (Matt. v. II, 12.) He saith, "for great is your reward in heaven." Elsewhere too He says," And leap for joy." (Luke vi. 23.) But He would not have made the reward so great, had soul; for the pain is both of the body and of the soul; but here it is of the soul alone. Many at any rate have fallen by these alone, and have lost their own souls. And to Job also the reproaches of his friends appeared more grievous than the worms and the sores. For there is nothing, there is nothing more intolerable to those in affliction than a word capable of stinging the soul. Wherefore along with the perils and the toils he names these also, saying, "By glory and dishonor." At any rate, many of the Jews also on account of glory derived from the many would not believe. For they feared, not lest they should be punished, but lest they should be put out of the synagogue. Wherefore He saith, "How can ye believe which receive glory one of another?" (John v. 44.) And we may see numbers who have indeed despised all dangers, but have been worsted by glory.

[4.] "As deceivers, and yet true." This is, "by evil report and good report."

Ver. 9. "As unknown, and yet well known." This is, "by glory and dishonor." For by some they were well known and much sought after, whilst others designed not to know them at all. "As dying, and behold, we live."

As under sentence of death and condemned; which was itself also matter of dishonor. But this he said, to show both the unspeakable power of God and their own patience. For so far as those who plotted against us were concerned, we died; and this is what all suppose; but by God's aid we escaped the dangers. Then to manifest also on what account God permits these things, he added, "As chastened, and not killed."

Showing that the gain accruing to them from their temptations, even before the rewards, was great, and that their enemies against their will did them service. Ver. 10. "As sorrowful, yet alway rejoicing." For by those that are without, indeed, we are suspected of being in despair; but we give no heed to them; yea, we have our pleasure at the full(1) And he said not "rejoicing" only, but added also its perpetuity, for he says? "alway rejoicing" What then can come up to this life? wherein, although dangers so great assault, the joy becometh greater. "As poor, yet making many rich."

Some indeed affirm that the spiritual riches are spoken of here; but I would say that the carnal are so too; for they were rich in these also, having, after a new kind of manner, the houses of all opened to them. And this too he signified by what follows, saying,

"As having nothing, and yet possessing all things."

And how can this be? Yea rather, how can the opposite be? For he that possesseth many things hath nothing; and he that hath nothing possesseth the goods of all(2). And not here only, but also in the other points, contraries were to have all things, let bring forth this man himself into the midst, who commanded the world and was lord not only of their substance, but of their very eyes even. "If possible," he says, "ye would have plucked out your eyes, and have given them to me." (Gal. iv. 15.)

Now these things he says, to instruct us not to be disturbed at the opinions of the many, though they call us deceivers, though they know us not, though they count us condemned(3), and appointed unto death, to be in sorrow, to be in poverty, to have nothing, to be (us, who are in cheerfulness) desponding: because that the sun even is not clear to the blind, nor the pleasure of the sane intelligible(4) to the mad. For the faithful only are fight judges of these matters, and are not pleased and pained at the same things as other people. For if any one who knew nothing of the games were to see a boxer, having wounds upon him and wearing a crown; he would think him in pain on account of the wounds, not understanding the pleasure the crown would give him. And these therefore, because they know what we suffer but do not know for what we suffer them, naturally suspect that there is nought besides these; for they see indeed the wrestling and the dangers, but not the prizes and the crowns. "As having nothing, and yet possessing all things?" Things temporal(6), things spiritual. For he whom the cities received as an angel, for whom they would have plucked out their own eyes and have given them to him, (Gal. iv. 14, 15.) he for whom they laid down their own necks, how had he not all things that were theirs? (Rom, xvi. 4.) But if thou desirest to see the spiritual also, thou wilt find him in these things also especially rich. For he that was so dear to the King of all as even to share in unspeakable things with the Lord of the angels, (ch. xii. 4.) how was not he more opulent than all men, and had all things? Devils had not else been so subject to him, suffering and disease had not so fled away(7).

[5.] And let us therefore, when we suffer aught for Christ's sake, not merry bear it nobly but also rejoice. If we fast, let us leap for joy as if enjoying luxury; if we be insulted, let us dance as if praised; if we spend, let us feel as if gaining; if we below on the poor, let us count ourselves to receive: for he that gives not thus will not give readily. When then thou hast a mind to scatter abroad, look not at this only in almsgiving, but also in every kind of virtue, compute not alone the severity of the toils, but also the sweetness of the prizes; and before all the subjects of this wrestling, our Lord Jesus; and thou wilt readily enter upon the contest, and wilt live the whole time in pleasure. For nothing is wont so to cause pleasure as a good conscience.

Therefore Paul indeed, though wounded every day, rejoiced and exulted; but the men of this day, although they endure not a shadow even(1) of what he did, grieve and make lamentations from no other cause than that they have not a mind full of heavenly philosophy. For, tell me, wherefore the lamentation? Because thou art poor, and in want of necessaries? Surely for this thou oughtest rather to make lamentation, [not](2) because thou weepest, not because thou art poor, but because thou art mean-spirited; not because thou hast not money, but because thou prizest money so highly. Paul died daily, yet wept not but even rejoiced; he fought with continual hunger, yet grieved not but even gloried in it. And dost thou, because for his own needs, but for the whole world's. And thou indeed [hast to care] for one household, but he for those so many poor at Jerusalem, for those in Macedonia, for those everywhere in poverty, for those who give to them no less than for those who receive. For his care for the world was of a twofold nature, both that they might not be destitute of necessaries, and that they might be rich in spiritual things. And thy famishing children distress not thee so much as all the concerns of the faithful did him. Why do I say, of the faithful? For neither was he free from care for the unfaithful, but was so eaten up with it that he wished even to become accursed for their sakes; but thou, were a famine to rage ten thousand times over, wouldest never choose to die for any whomsoever. And thou indeed carest for one woman, but he for the Churches throughout the world. For he saith, "My anxiety for all the Churches." (ch. xi. 28.) How long then, O man, dost thou trifle, comparing thyself with Paul; and wilt not cease from this thy much meanness of spirit? For it behoveth to weep, not when we are in poverty but when we sin; for this is worthy of lamentations, as all the other things are of ridicule even. ' But,' he saith, ' this is not all that grieves me; but that also such an one is in power, whilst I am unhonored and outcast.' And what is this? for the blessed Paul too appeared to the many to be unhonored and an outcast. 'But,' saith he, 'he was Paul.' Plainly then not the nature of the things, but thy feebleness of spirit case thy desponding. Lament not therefore thy poverty, but thyself who art so minded, yea rather, lament not thyself, but reform thee; and seek not for money, but pursue that which maketh men of more cheerful countenance than thousands of money, philosophy and virtue. For where indeed these are, there is no harm in poverty; and where these are not there is no good in money. For tell me, what good is it when men are rich indeed, but have beggarly souls? Thou dost not bewail thyself, so much as that rich man himself, because he hath not the wealth of all. And if he doth not weep as thou dost, yet lay open his conscience, and thou wilt see his wailings and lamentation.

Wilt thou that I show thee thine own riches, that thou mayest cease to count them happy that are rich in money? Seest thou this heaven here, the sun, this bright and far shining star, and that gladdeneth our eyes, is not this too set out(3) common to all? and do not all enjoy it equally, both poor and rich? And the wreath of the stars and the orb of the moon, are they not left equally to all? Yea, rather, if I must speak somewhat marvellous, we poor enjoy these more than they. For they indeed being for the most part steeped in drunkenness, and passing their time in revellings and deep sleep, do not even perceive these things, being always under cover(4) and reared in the shade(5): but the poor do more than any enjoy the luxury of these elements. And further, if thou wilt look into the air which is every where diffused, thou wilt see the poor man enjoying it in greater both freshness and abundance. For wayfarers and husbandmen enjoy these luxuries more than the inhabitants of the city; and again, of those same inhabitants of the city, the handicraftsmen more than those who are drunken all the day. What too of the earth, is not this left common to all? ' No,' he saith. How sayest thou so? tell me. ' Because the rich man, even in the city, having gotten himself several plethra, raises up long fences round them; and in the country cuts off for himself many potions' What then? When he cuts them off, does he alone enjoy them? By no means, though he should contend for it ever so earnestly. For the produce he is compelled to distribute amongst all, and for thee he cultivates grain, and wine, and oil, and every where ministers unto thee. And those long fences and buildings, after his untold expense and his toils and drudgery he is preparing for thy use, receiving from thee only a small piece of silver for so great a service. And in baths and every where, one may see the same thing obtaining; the rich of it all with perfect ease. And his enjoyment of the earth is no more than thine; for sure he filleth not ten stomachs, and thou only one. ' But he partaketh of costlier meats? ' Truly, this is no mighty superiority; howbeit, even here, we shall find thee to have the advantage. For this costliness is therefore thought by thee a matter of envy because the pleasure with it is greater. Yet this is greater in the poor man's case; yet not pleasure only, but health also; and in this alone is the advantage with the rich, that he maketh his constitution feebler and collects more abundant fountains of disease. For the poor man's diet is all ordered according to nature, but his through its excess resulteth in corruption and disease.

[6.] But if ye will, let us also look at this same thing in an example. For if it were requisite to light a furnace, and then one man were to throw in silken garments and fine linens, many and numberless, and so kindle it; and another logs of oak and pine, what advantage would this man have over that? None, but even disadvantage. But what? (for there is nothing to prevent our turning the same illustration round after another manner,) if one were to throw in logs, and another were to light his fire under bodies, by which furnace wouldest thou like to stand, that with the logs, or that with the bodies? Very plainly that with the logs. For that burns naturally and is a pleasant spectacle to the beholders: whilst this with the steam, and juices, and smoke, and the stench of the bones would drive every one away. Didst thou shudder at the hearing, and loathe that furnace? Like it are the bellies of the rich. For in them one would find more rottenness than in that furnace, and stinking vapors, and filthy humors, because that, all over in every part, indigestion abounds in consequence of their surfeiting. For the natural heat not sufficing for the digestion of the whole but being smothered under them, they lie smoking above, and the unpleasantness produced is great. To what then should one compare those stomachs of theirs? Yet do not be offended at what I say, but if I do not say true things, refute me. To what then should one compare them? for even what has been said is not enough to show their wretched plight. I have found another resemblance yet. What then is it? As in the sewers where there is accumulation of refuse, of drug, hay, stubble, stones, clay, frequent stoppages occur; and then the stream of filth overflows at top: so also it happeneth with the stomachs of those people. For these being stopped up below, the greater part of these villainous streams spurts up above. But not so with the poor, but like those fountains which well forth pure streams, and water gardens and pleasure grounds(1), so also are their stomachs pure from such-like superfluities. But not such are the stomachs of the rich, or rather of the luxurious; but they are filled with humors, phlegm, bile, corrupted blood, putrid rheums, and other suchlike matters. Wherefore no one, if he lives always in luxury, can bear it even for a short time; but his life will be spent in continual sicknesses. Wherefore I would gladly ask them, for what end are meats given? that we may be destroyed, or be nourished? that we may be diseased, or be strong? that we may be healthful, or be sickly? Very plainly, for nourishment, creating unto the body disease and sickness? But not so the poor man; on the contrary, by his plain diet he purchases to himself health, and vigor, and strength. Weep not then on account of poverty, the mother of health, but even exult in it; and if thou wouldest be rich, despise riches For this, not the having money but the not wanting to have it, is truly affluence. If we can achieve this, we shall both be here more affluent than all that are rich, and there shall obtain the good things to come, whereunto may all we attain, through the grace and love towards men of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom to the Father, with the Holy Ghost, be glory, might, honor, now and ever, and world without end. Amen.

HOMILY XIII.

2 COR. vi. 11, 12.

"Our mouth is open unto you, O ye Corinthians, our heart is enlarged, ye are not straitened in us, but ye are straitened in your own affections"

HAVING detailed his own trials and afflictions, for "in patience," saith he, "in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses, (v. 4, 5.) in stripes, in imprisonments, in tumult, in labors, in watchings;" and having shown that the thing was a great good, for "as sorrowful," saith he, "yet always rejoicing; as poor, yet "as chastened," saith he, "and not killed:" and having called those things "armor" for "as chastened," saith he, "and not killed:" and having hereby represented God's abundant care and power, for he saith, "that the exceeding greatness of the power may be of God, and not of us ;" (c. iv. 7. ) and having recounted his labors, for he saith, "we always bear about His dying;" and that this is a clear demonstration of the Resurrection, for he says, "that the life also of Jesus may be manifested in our mortal flesh ;" (c. iv. 10.) and of what things he was made partaker, and with what he had been entrusted, for "we are ambassadors on behalf of Christ," (c. iii. 20.) saith he, "as though God were entreating by us; "and of what things he is a minister, namely, "not of the letter, but of the Spirit; " (c. iii. 6, ) and that he was entitled to reverence not only on this account, but also for his trials, for, "Thanks be to God," saith he, "which always causeth us to triumph: "he purposeth now also to rebuke them as not being too well minded towards himself. But though purposing he does not immediately come upon this, but having his discussion of these things. For if even from his own good deeds he that rebuketh be entitled to reverence; yet still, when he also displayeth the love, which he bears towards those who are censured, he maketh his speech less offensive. Therefore the Apostle also having stepped out of the subject of his own trials and toils and contests, passes on into speaking of his love, and in this way toucheth them to the quick. What then are the indications of his love? "Our month is open unto you, O ye Corinthians." And what kind of sign of love is this? or what meaning even have the words at all? ' We cannot endured' he says, ' to be silent towards you, but are always desiring and longing to speak to and converse with you; ' which is the wont of those who love. For what grasping of the hands is to the body, that is interchange of language to the soul. And along with this he implies another thing also. Of what kind then is this? That ' we discourse unto nothing.' For since afterwards he proposes to rebuke, he asks forgiveness, using the rebuking them with freedom as itself a proof of his loving them exceedingly. Moreover the addition of their name is a mark of great love and warmth and affection; for we are accustomed to be repeating continually the bare names of those we love.

"Our heart is enlarged." For as that which warmeth is wont to dilate; so also to enlarge is the work of love. For virtue is warm and fervent. This both opened the mouth of Paul and enlarged his heart. For, ' neither do I love with the mouth only,' saith he, 'but I have also a heart in union. Therefore I speak with openness, with my whole mouth, with my whole mind.' For nothing is wider than was Paul's heart which loved all the faithful with all the vehemence that one might bear towards the object of his affection; this his love not being full entireness with each. And what marvel that this was so in the case of the faithful, seeing that even in that of the unfaithful, the heart of Paul embraced the whole world? Therefore he said not' I love you,' but with more emphasis, "Our mouth is open, our heart is enlarged," we have you all within it, and not this merely, but with much largeness of room(1). For he that is beloved walketh with great unrestraint within the heart of him that loveth. Wherefore he saith, "Ye are not straitened in us, but ye are straightened in your own affections." And this reproof, see it administered with forbearance, as is the wont of such as love exceedingly. He did not say, 'ye do not love us,' but, 'not in the same measure,' for he does not wish to touch them too sensibly. And indeed every where one may see how he is inflamed toward the faithful, by selecting words out of every Epistle. For to the Romans he saith, "I long to see you;" and, "oftentimes I purposed to come unto you;" and, "If by any means now at length I may be prospered to come unto you." (Rom. i. 11, 13, 10.) And to the Galatians, he says, "My little children of whom I am again in travail." (Gal. iv. 19.) To the Ephesians again, "For this cause I bow my knees" for you. (Ephes. iii. 14.) And to the Philippians,(1) "For what is my hope, or joy, or crown of rejoicing? are not even ye?" and he said that he bare them about in his heart, and(2) in his bonds. (Philipp. i. 7.) And to the Colossians, "But I would that ye knew greatly I strive for you, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh; that your hearts might be comforted." (Coloss. ii. 1. 2.) And to the Thessalonians, "As when a nurse cherisheth her children, even so being affectionately desirous of you, we were well pleased to impart unto you, not the Gospel only, but also our own souls." (1 Thess. ii. 7. 8.) And to Timothy, "Remembering thy tears, that I may be filled with joy." (2 Tim. i. 4.) And to Titus, "To my beloved(3) son; (Tit. i. 4.) and to Philemon, in like manner. (Philem. 1.) And to the Hebrews too, he writes many other suchlike things, and ceaseth not to beseech them, and say, "A very little while, and he that cometh shall come, and shall not tarry:" (Heb. x. 37.) just like a mother to her pettish(4) children. And to themselves(5) he says, "Ye are not straitened in us." But he does not say only that he loves, but also that he is beloved by them, in order that hereby also he may the rather win them. And indeed testifying to this in them, he says, Titus came and "told us your longing, your mourning, your zeal." (2 Cor. vii. 7.) And to the Galatians, "If possible, ye would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me," (Gal. iv. 15.) And to the Thessalonians, "What manner of entering in we had unto you." (1 Thess, i. 9. ) And to Timothy also, "Remembering thy tears, that I may be filled with joy." (2 Tim. i. 4.) And also throughout his Epistles one may find him bearing this testimony to the disciples, both that he loved and that he is loved, not however equally. And here he saith, "Though the more abundantly I love you, the less I be loved." (2 Cor. xii. 15.) This, however, is near the end; but at present more vehemently, "Ye are not straitened in us, but ye are straitened in your own affections," 'You receive one,' he says, ' but I a whole city, and so great a population.' And he said not, ' ye do not receive us,' but, ' ye are straitened; ' implying indeed the same thing but with forbearance and without touching them too deeply.

Ver. 13. "Now for a recompense in like kind (I speak as unto my children,) be ye also enlarged."

And yet it is not an equal return, first to be loved, afterwards to love. For even if one were to contribute that which is equal in amount, he is inferior in that he comes to it second. ' But nevertheless I am not going to reckon strictly,(6)' saith he, 'and if ye after having received the first advances(7) from me do but show forth the same amount, I am well-pleased and contented.' Then to show that to do this was even a debt, and that what he said was void of flattery, he saith, "I speak as unto my children." What meaneth, "as unto my children?" 'I ask no great thing, if being your father I wish to be loved by you.' And see wisdom and moderation of mind. He mentions not here his dangers on their behalf, and his labors, and his deaths, although he had many to tell of: (so free from pride is he!) but his love: and on this account he claims to be loved; 'because,' saith he, ' I was your father, because I exceedingly burn for you,' [for] it is often especially offensive to the person beloved when a man sets forth his benefits to him; for he seems to reproach. Wherefore Paul doth not this; but, ' like children, love your father,' saith he, which rather proceeds from instinct(8); and is the due of every father. Then that he may not seem to speak these things for his own sake, he shows that it is for their advantage even that he invites this love from them. And therefore he added,

Ver. 14: "Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers."

He said not, ' Intermix not with unbelievers,' but rather dealing sharply with(9) them, as transgressing what was right, ' Suffer not yourselves to turn aside,' saith he, "For what fellowship have righteousness and iniquity?" Here in what follows he institutes a comparison, not between his own love and theirs who corrupt them, but between their nobleness and the others' dishonor. For thus his discourse became more dignified and more beseeming himself, and would the rather win them. Just as if one should say to a son that despised his parents, and gave himself up to vicious persons, 'What art thou doing, child? Dost thou despise thy father and prefer impure men filled with ten thousand vices? Knowest thou not how much better and more respectable thou art than they? ' For so he detaches him more [readily] from their society than if he should express admiration of his father. For were he to say indeed, ' Knowest thou not how much thy father is better than they?' he will not produce so much effect; but if, leaving mention of his father, he bring himself before them, saying, ' Knowest thou not who thou art and what they are? Dost thou not bear in mind thine own high birth and gentle(1) blood, and their infamy? For what communion hast thou with them, those thieves, those adulterers, those impostors ?' by elevating him with these praises of himself, he will quickly prepare him to break off from them. For the former address indeed, he will not entertain with overmuch acceptance, because the exalting of his father is an accusation of himself, when he is shown to be not only grieving a father, but such a father; but in this case he will have no such feeling. For none would choose not to be praised, and therefore, along with these praises of him that hears, the rebuke becometh easy of digestion. For the listener is softened, and is filled with high thoughts, and disdains(2) the society of those persons.

But not this only is the point to be admired in him that thus he prosecuted his comparison, but that he 'imagined another thing also still greater and more astounding; in the first place, prosecuting his speech in the form of interrogation, which is proper to things that are clear and admitted, and then dilating it by the quick succession and multitude of his terms. For he employs not one or two or three only, but several. Add to this that instead of the persons he employs the names of the things, and he delineates here high virtue and there extreme vice; and shows the difference between them to be great and infinite so as not even to need demonstration. "For what fellowship," saith he, "have righteousness and iniquity?"

"And what communion hath light with darkness?" (v. 15, 16,) "And what concord hath Christ with Beliar(3)? Or what portion (4) hath a believer with an unbeliever? Or what agreement hath a temple of God with idols ?"

Seest thou how he uses the bare names, and how adeqately to his purpose of dissuasion. For he did not say, ' neglect of righteousness(5)," [but] what was stronger [iniquity(6)]; nor did he say those who are of the light, and those who are of the darkness; but he uses opposites themselves which can not admit of their opposites, 'light and darkness.' Nor said he those who are of Christ, with those who are of the devil; but, which was far wider apart, Christ and Beliar, so calling that apostate one, in the Hebrew tongue. "Or what portion hath a believer with an unbeliever?" Here, at length, that he may not seem simply to be going through a censure of vice and an encomium of virtue, he mentions persons also without particularizing. And he said not, 'communion,' but spoke of the rewards, using the term "portion. What agreement hath a temple of God with idols?"

"For ye(7) are a temple of the living God." Now what he says is this. Neither hath your King aught in common with him, "for what concord hath Christ with Beliar?" nor have the things [aught in common'], "for what communion hath light with darkness?" Therefore neither should ye. And first he mentions their king and then themselves; by this separating them most effectually. Then having said, "a temple of God with idols," and having declared, "For ye are a temple of the living God," he is necessitated to subjoin also the testimony of this to show that the thing is no flattery. For he that praises except he also exhibit proof, even appears to flatter. What then is his testimony? For,

"I will dwell in them, saith he, "and walk in them. I will dwell in," as in temples, "and walk in them," signifying the more abundant attachment(8) to them.

"And they shall be my people and I will be their God(9). ' What?' saith he, ' Dost thou bear God within thee, and runnest unto them? God That hath nothing in common with them ? And in what can this deserve forgiveness? Bear in mind Who walketh, Who dwelleth in thee.'

Ver. 17. "Wherefore come ye out from among them, and be ye separate, and touch no unclean thing; and I will receive you, saith the Lord.

And He said not, ' Do not unclean things'; but, requiring greater strictness, 'do not even touch,' saith he, nor go near them.' But what is filthiness of the flesh ? Adultery, fornication, lasciviousness of every kind. And what of the soul? Unclean thoughts, as gazing with unchaste eyes, malice, deceits, and whatsoever' such things there be. He wishes then that they should be clean in both. Seest thou how great the prize? To be delivered from what is evil, to be made one with God. Hear also what follows.

Ver. 18. "And I will be to you a Father, and ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord."

Seest thou how from the beginning the Prophet fore-announceth our present high birth, the Regeneration by grace?

Chap. vii. ver. 1. "Having therefore these promises, beloved."

What promises? That we should be temples of God, sons and daughters, have Him indwelling, and walking in us, be His people, have Him for our God and Father.

"Let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit."

Let us neither touch unclean things, for this is cleansing of the flesh; nor things which defile the soul, for this is cleansing of the spirit. Yet he is not content with this only, but adds also,

"Perfecting holiness in the fear of God." For not to touch the unclean thing doth not make clean, but there needeth something else besides to our becoming holy; earnestness, heedfulness, piety. And he well said, "In the fear of God." For it is possible to perfect chasteness, not in the fear of God but for vainglory. And along with this he implies yet another thing, by saying, "In the fear of God;" the manner, namely, whereafter holiness may be perfected. For if lust be even an imperious thing, still if thou occupy its territory with(1)the fear of God, thou hast stayed its frenzy.

[4.] Now by holiness here he means not chastity alone, but the freedom from every kind of sin, for he is holy that is pure. Now one will become pure, not if he be free from fornication only, but if from covetousness also, and envy, and pride(2), and vainglory, yea especially from vainglory which in every thing indeed it behoveth to avoid, but much more in alms-giving; since neither will it be almsgiving, if it have this distemper, but display and cruelty. • For when thou dost it not out of mercy, but from parade(3), such deed is not only no alms but even an insult; for thou hast put thy brother to open shame(4). Not then the giving money, but the giving it out of mercy, is almsgiving. For people too at the theatres give, both to prostitute boys and to others who are on the stage; but such a deed is not almsgiving. And they too give that abuse the persons of prostitute women; but this is not lovingkindness, but insolent treatment(5). Like this is the vainglorious also. For just as he that abuseth the person of the harlot, pays her a price for that abuse; so too dost thou demand a price of him that receiveth of thee, thine insult of him and thine investing him as well as thyself with an evil notoriety. And besides this, the loss is unspeakable. For just as a wild beast and a mad dog springing upon us might, so doth this ill disease and this inhumanity make prey of our good things. For inhumanity and cruelty such a course is; yea, rather more grievous even than this. For the cruel indeed would not give to him that asked; but thou dost more than this; thou hinderest those that wish to give. For when thou paradest thy giving, thou hast both lowered the reputation of the receiver, and hast pulled back(6) him that was about to give, if he be of a careless mind. For he will not give to him thenceforth, on the ground of his having already received, and so not being in want; yea he will often accuse him even, if after having received he should draw near to beg, and will think him impudent. What sort of alms-giving then is this when thou both shamest thyself and him that receiveth; and also in two ways Him that enjoined it: both because while having Him for a spectator of thine alms, thou seekest the eyes of thy fellow-servants besides Him, and because thou transgressest the law laid down by Him forbidding these things.

I could have wished to carry this out into those other subjects as well, both fasting and prayer, and to show in how many respects vainglory is injurious there also; but I remember that in the discourse before this I left unfinished a certain necessary point. What was the point? I was saying, that the poor have the advantage of the rich in the things of this life, when I discoursed concerning health and pleasure; and this was shown indistinctly. Come then, to-day let us show this, that not in the things of this life only, but also in those that are higher, the advantage is with them. For what leadeth unto a kingdom, riches or poverty? Let us hear the Lord Himself of the heavens saying of those, that "it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of heaven :"(Mat. xix. 24.) but of the poor the contrary, "If thou wilt be perfect, sell that thou hast, and give to the poor; and come, follow Me; and thou shalt have treasure in heaven." (Mat. xix. 21.) But if ye will, let us see what is said on either side. "Narrow and straitened is the way," He saith, "that leadeth unto life." (Mat. vii. 14.) Who then treadeth the narrow way, he that is in luxury, or that is in poverty; that is independent, or that carrieth ten thousand burdens; the lax(7) and dissolute, or the thoughtful and anxious? But what need of these arguments, when it is best to betake one's self to the persons themselves. Lazarus was poor, yea very poor; and he that passed him by as he lay at his gateway was rich. Which then entered into the kingdom, and was in delights in Abraham's bosom? and which of them was scorched, with not even a drop at his command ? But, saith one, ' both many poor will be lost, and [many] rich will enjoy those unspeakable goods.' Nay rather, one may see the contrary, few rich saved, but of the poor far more. For, consider, making accurate measure of the hindrances of riches and the defects of poverty, (or rather, neither of riches nor of poverty are they, but each of those who have riches or poverty; howbeit,) let us at least see which is the more available weapon. What defect then doth poverty seem to possess? Lying. And what, wealth? Pride, the mother of evils; which also made the devil a devil, who was not such before. Again, "the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil." (1 Tim. vi. 10.) Which then stands near this root, the rich man, or the poor ? Is it not very plainly the rich? For the more things anyone surrounds himself with, he desires so much the more. Vainglory again damages tens of thousands of good deeds, and near this too again the rich man hath his dwelling(1). "But," saith one, "thou mentionest not the [evils] of the poor man, his affliction, his straits." Nay, but this is both common to the rich, and is his more than the poor man's; so that those indeed which appear to be evils of poverty are common to either: whilst those of riches are riches' only. ' But what,' saith one, 'when for want of necessaries the poor man committeth many horrible things?' But no poor man, no, not one, committeth as many horrible things from want, as do the rich for the sake of surrounding themselves with more, and of not losing what stores they have(2). For the poor man doth not so eagerly desire necessaries as the rich doth superfluities; nor again has he as much strength to put wickedness in practice as the other hath power. If then the rich man is both more willing and able, it is quite plain that he will rather commit such, and more of them. Nor is the poor man so much afraid in respect of hunger, as the rich trembleth and is anxious in respect of the loss of what he has, and because he has not yet gotten all men's possessions. Since then he is near both vainglory and arrogance, and the love of money, the root of all evils, what hope of salvation shall he have except he display much wisdom ? And how shall he walk the narrow way? Let us not therefore carry about the notions of the many, but examine into the facts. For how is it not absurd that in respect to money, indeed, we do not trust to others, but refer this to figures and calculation; but in calculating upon facts we are lightly drawn aside by the notions of others; and that too, though we possess an exact balance(3), and square(4) and rules for all things, the declaration of the divine laws? Wherefore I exhort and entreat you all, disregard what this man and that man thinks about these things, and inquire from the Scriptures all these things; and having learnt what are the true riches, let us pursue after them that we may obtain also the eternal good things; which may we all obtain, through the grace and love towards men of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom, to the Father and the Holy Spirit, be glory, might, and honor, now and ever, and world without end. Amen.

HOMILY XIV.

2 COR. vii. 2, 3.

"Open your hearts to us: we wronged no man, we corrupted no man, we took advantage of no man. I say it not to condemn you; for l have said before, [as I have also declared above](6), that ye are in our hearts to die together and live together."

Again he raiseth the discourse about love, mitigating the harshness of his rebuke. For since he had convicted and reproached them as being beloved indeed, yet not loving in an equal degree, but breaking away from his love and mixing up with other pestilent fellows; again he softens the vehemence of his rebuke, saying, "Make room for us," that is, "love us;" and prays to receive a favor involving no burden, and advantaging them that confer above them that receive it. And he said not, 'love,' but with a stronger appeal to their pity(1), "make room for." ' Who expelled us? ' saith he: ' Who cast us out of your hearts? How come we to be straitened in you?' for since he said above, "Ye are straitened in your affections;" here declaring it more clearly, he said, "make room for us:" in this way also again winning them to himself. For nothing doth so produce love as for the beloved to know that he that loveth him exceedingly desireth his love.

"We wronged no man." See how again he does not mention the benefits [done by him], but frameth his speech in another way, so as to be both less offensive and more cutting(2). And at the same time he also alludes to the false apostles, saying, "We wronged no man, we corrupted no man, we defrauded no man."

What is "we corrupted?" That is, we beguiled no man; as he says elsewhere also. "Lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve, so your minds should be corrupted." (2 Cor. xi. 3.)

"We defrauded no man;" we plundered, plotted against no man. And he for the present forbears to say, ' we benefited you in such and such ways;' but framing his language so as more to shame them, " We wronged no man, "' he says; as much as saying, ' Even had we in no wise benefited you, not even so ought ye to turn away from us; for ye have nothing to lay to our charge, either small or great.' Then, for he felt the heaviness of his rebuke, he tempers it again. And he was neither silent altogether, for so he would not have aroused them; nor yet did he let the harshness of his language go unmodified, for so he would have wounded them too much. And what says he? Ver. 3. "I say it not to condemn you." How is this evident? "For I have said before," he adds, "that ye are in our hearts to die and live with you." This is the greatest affection, when even though treated with contempt, he chooseth both to die and live with them. ' For neither are ye merely in our hearts,' he says, 'but in such sort as I said. For it is possible both to love and to shun dangers, but we do not thus.' And behold here also wisdom unspeakable. For he spake not of what had been done for them, that he might not seem to be again reproaching them, but he promiseth for the future. ' For should it chance,' saith he, ' that danger should invade, for your sakes I am ready to suffer every thing; and neither death nor life seemeth aught to me in itself, but in whichever ye be, that is to me more desirable, both death than life and life than death.' Howbeit, dying indeed is manifestly a proof of love; but living, who is there that would not choose, even of those who are not friends? Why then does the Apostle mention it as something great? Because it is even exceeding great. For numbers indeed sympathize with their friends when they are in misfortune, but when they are in honor rejoice not with, but envy, them. ' But not so we; but whether ye be in calamity, we are not afraid to share your ill fortune; or whether ye be prosperous, we are not wounded with envy.'

[2.] Then after he had continually repeated these things, saying, "Ye are not straitened in us;" and, "Ye are straitened in your own affections;" and, "make room for us;" and, "Be ye also enlarged;" and, "We wronged no man;" and all these things seemed to be a condemnation of them: observe how he also in another manner alleviates this severity by saying, "Great is my boldness of speech towards you." ' Therefore I venture upon such things,' he says, ' not to condemn you by what I say, but out of my great boldness of speech,' which also farther signifying, he said, "Great is my glorying on your behalf." ' For think not indeed,' he saith, ' that because I thus speak, I speak as though I had condemned you altogether; (for I am exceedingly proud of, and glory in, you ;) but both out of tender concern and a desire that you should make greater increase unto. virtue.' And so he said to the Hebrews also after much rebuke; "But we are persuaded better things of you, and things that accompany salvation, though we thus speak: and we desire that each one of you may show the same diligence to the fullness of hope even to the end." (Heb. vi. 9, 11.) So indeed here also, "Great is my glorying on your behalf." 'We glory others of you,' he says. Seest thou what genuine comfort he has given? ' And,' he saith, ' I do not simply glory, but also, greatly.' Accordingly he added these words; "I am filled with comfort." What comfort? ' That coming from you; because that ye, having been reformed, comforted me by your conduct.' This is the test of one that loveth, both to complain of not being loved and to fear lest 'he should inflict pain by complaining immoderately. Therefore he says, "I am filled with comfort, I overflow with joy." 'But these expressions,' saith one, 'seem to contradict the former.' They do not do so, however, but are even exceedingly in harmony with them. For these procure for the former a favorable reception; and the praise which they convey makes the benefit of those rebukes more genuine, by quietly abstracting what was painful in them. Wherefore he uses these expressions, but with great genuineness and earnestness(3). For he did not say, ' I am filled with joy ;' but, "I abound ;" or rather, not "abound" either, but "super-abound;" in this way also again showing his yearning, that even though he be so loved as to rejoice and exult, he does not yet think himself loved as he ought to be loved, nor to have received full payment; so insatiable was he out of his exceeding love of them. For the joy it brings to be loved in any degree by those one passionately loves, is great by reason of our loving them exceedingly. So that this again was a proof of his affection. And of the comfort indeed, he saith, ' ' I am filled;" 'I have received what was owing to me;' but of the joy, "I superabound;" that is, 'I was desponding about you; but ye have sufficiently excused yourselves and supplied comfort: for ye have not only removed the ground of my sorrow, but have even increased joy.' Then showing its greatness, he not only declares it by saying, ', I superabound in joy," but also by adding, "in all our affliction." ' For so great was the delight arising to us on your account that it was not even dimmed by so great tribulation, but through the excess of its own greatness it overcame the sorrows that had hold of us, and suffered us not to feel the sense of them.'

Ver. 5. "For even when we were come into Macedonia, our flesh had no relief."

For since he said, "our tribulation ;" he both explains of what sort it was, and magnifies it by his words, in order to show that the consolation and joys received from them(1) was great, seeing it had repelled so great a sorrow. "But we were afflicted on every side."

How on every side? for "without were fightings," from the unbelievers; "within were fears;" because of the weak among the believers, lest they should be drawn aside. For not amongst the Corinthians only did these things happen, but elsewhere also.

Ver. 6. "Nevertheless He that comforteth the lowly comforted us by(2) the coming of Titus."

For since he had testified great things of them in what he said, that he may not seem to be flattering them he cites as witness Titus the brother(3), who had come from them to Paul after the first Epistle to declare unto him the particulars of their amendment. But consider, I pray you, how in every place he maketh a great matter of the coming of Titus. For he saith also before, "Furthermore when I came to Troas for the Gospel, I had no relief for my spirit because I found not Titus my brother;" (c. ii. 12, 13.) and in this place again we were comforted," he saith, "by the coming of Titus." For he is desirous also of establishing the man in their confidence and of making him exceedingly dear to them. And observe how he provides for both these things. For by saying on the one hand, "I had no relief for my spirit," he showeth the greatness of his virtue; and by saying on the other, that, in our tribulation his coming sufficed unto comfort; yet "not by his coming only, but also by the comfort wherewith he was comforted in you," he endeareth(4) the man unto the Corinthians. For nothing doth so produce and cement friendships as the saying something sound and favorable of any one. And such he testifies Titus did; when he says that 'by his coming he hath given us wings with pleasure; such things did he report of you. On this ground his coming made us glad. For we were delighted not "only by his coming, but also for the comfort wherewith he was comforted in you." And how was he comforted? By your virtue, by your good deeds.' Wherefore also he adds,

"While he told us your longing, your mourning, your zeal for me. 'These things made him glad,' he says, ' these things comforted him.' Seest thou how he shows that he also is an earnest lover of theirs, seeing he considers their good report as a consolation to himself; and when he was come, gloried, as though on account of his own good things, unto Paul.

And observe with what warmth of expression he reporteth these things, "Your longing, your mourning, your zeal." For it was likely(5) that they would mourn and grieve why the blessed Paul was so much displeased, why he had kept away from them so long. And therefore he did not say simply tears, but "mourning;" nor desire, but "longing;" nor anger, but "zeal;" and again "zeal toward him," which they displayed both about him that had committed fornication and about those who were accusing him. 'For,' saith he, 'ye were inflamed and blazed out on receiving my letters.' On these accounts he abounds in joy, on these accounts he is filled with consolation, because he made them feel. It seems to me, however, that these things are said not only to soften what has gone before, but also in encouragement of those who had acted in these things virtuously. For although I suppose that some were obnoxious to those former accusations and unworthy of these praises; nevertheless, he doth not distinguish them, but makes both the praises and the accusations common, leaving it to the conscience of his hearers to select that which belongs to them. For so both the one would be void of offence, and the other lead them on to much fervor of mind.

[4.] Such also now should be the feelings of those who are reprehended; thus should they lament and mourn; thus yearn after their teachers; thus, more than fathers, seek them. For by those indeed living cometh, but by these good living. Thus ought they to bear the rebukes of their fathers, thus to sympathize with their rulers on account of those that sin. For it does not rest all with them, but with you also. For if he that hath sinned perceives that he was rebuked indeed by his father, but flattered by his brethren; he becometh more easy of mind. But when the father rebukes, be thou too angry as well, whether as concerned for thy brother or as joining in thy father's indignation; only be the earnestness thou showest great; and mourn, not that he was rebuked, but that he sinned. But if I build up and thou pull down, what profit have we had but labor? (Ecclus. xxxiv. 23. ) Yea, rather, thy loss stops not here, but thou bringest also punishment on thyself. For he that hindereth the wound from being healed is punished not less than he that inflicted it, but even more. For it is not an equal offence to wound and to hinder that which is wounded from being healed; for this indeed necessarily gendereth death, but that not necessarily. Now I have spoken thus to you; that ye may join in the anger of your rulers whenever they are indignant justly; that when ye see any one rebuked, ye may all shun him more than does the teacher. Let him that hath offended fear you more than his rulers. For if he is afraid of his teacher only, he will readily sin: but if he have to dread so many eyes, so many tongues, he will be in greater safety. For as, if we do not thus act, we shall suffer the extremest punishment; so, if we perform these things, we shall partake of the gain that accrues from his reformation. Thus then let us act; and if any one shall say, ' be humane towards thy brother, this is a Christian's duty; let him be taught, that he is humane who is angry [with him], not he who sets him at ease(1) prematurely and alloweth him not even to come to a sense of his transgression. For which, tell me, pities the man in a fever and laboring under delirium, he that lays him on his bed, and binds him down, and keeps him from meats and drinks that are not fit for him; or he that allows him to glut himself with strong drink, and orders him to have his liberty, and to act in every respect as one that is in health ? Does not this person even aggravate the distemper, the man that seemeth to act humanely, whereas the other amends it? Such truly Ought our decision to be in this case also. For it is the part of humanity, not to humor the sick in every thing nor to flatter their unseasonable desires. No one so loved him that committed fornication amongst the Corinthinians, as Paul who commandeth to deliver him to Satan; no one so hated him as they that applaud and court him; and the event showed it. For they indeed both puffed him up and increased his inflammation; but [the Apostle] both lowered it and left him not until he brought him to perfect health. And they indeed added to the existing mischief, he eradicated even that which existed from the first. These laws, then, of humanity let us learn also. For if thou seest a horse hurrying down a precipice, thou appliest a bit and holdest him in with violence and lashest him frequently; although this is punishment, yet the punishment itself is the mother of safety. Thus act also in the case of those that sin. Bind him that hath transgressed until he have appeased God; let him not go loose, that he be not bound the faster by the anger of God. If I bind, God doth not chain; if I bind not, the indissoluble chains await him. "For if we judged ourselves, we should not be judged. (1 Cor. xi. 31.) Think not, then, that thus to act cometh of cruelty and inhumanity; nay, but of the highest gentleness and the most skillful leechcraft and of much tender care. But, saith one, they have been punished for a long time. How long? Tell me. A year, and two, and three years? Howbeit, I require not this, length of time, but amendment of soul. This then show, whether they have been pricked to the heart, whether they have reformed, and all is done: since if there be not this, there is no advantage in the time. For neither do we inquire whether the wound has been often bandaged, but whether the bandage has been of any service. If therefore it hath been of service, although in a short time, let it be kept on no longer: but if it hath done no service, even at the end of ten years, let it be still kept on: and let this fix the term of release, the good of him that is bound. If we are thus careful both of ourselves and of others, and regard not honor and dishonor at the hands of men; but bearing in mind the punishment and the disgrace that is there, and above all the provoking of God, apply with energy the medicines of repentance: we shall both presently arrive at the perfect health, and shall obtain the good things to come; which may all we obtain, through the grace and love towards men of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom, to the Father, with the Holy Spirit, be glory, might, honor, now and ever, and world without end. Amen.

HOMILY XV.

2 COR. vii. 8.

"So that(1) though I made you sorry with my letter, I do not regret it, though I did regret,"

He goes on to apologize for his Epistle, when, (the sin having been corrected,) to treat them tenderly(2) was unattended with danger; and he shows the advantage of the thing. For he did this indeed even before, when he said, "For out of much affliction and anguish of heart, I wrote unto you: not that ye should be made sorry, but that ye might know the love which I have toward you." (c. ii. 4.) And he does it also now, establishing this same point in more words. And he said not, ' I regretted indeed before, but now I do not regret: ' but how? "I regret not now, though I did regret." 'Even if what I wrote,' he says, 'was such as to overstep the [due] measure of rebuke(3), and to cause me to regret; still the great advantage which has accrued from them doth not allow me to regret.' And this he said, not as though he had rebuked them beyond due measure, but to heighten his praises of them. ' For the amendment ye manifested was so great,' saith he, ' that even if I did happen to smite you too severely insomuch that I even condemned myself, I praise myself now from the result.' Just as with little children, when they have undergone a painful remedy, such as an incision, or cautery, or bitter physic, afterwards we are not afraid to sooth them; so also doth Paul.

Ver. 8, 9. "For I see that that epistle made you sorry, though but for a season. Now I rejoice not that ye were made sorry, but that ye were made sorry unto repentance."

Having said, "I do not regret," he tells the reason also; alleging the good that resulted from his letter; and skillfully excusing himself by saying, "though but for a season." For truly that which was painful was brief, but that which was profitable was perpetual. And what indeed followed naturally was to say, 'even though it grieved you for a season, yet it made you glad and benefited you forever.' But he doth not say this: but before mentioning the gain he passes again to his praises of them, and the proof of his own concern for them, saying, "Now I rejoice, not that ye were made sorry," ('for what gain came to me from you being made sorry ?) "but that ye were made sorry unto repentance," that the sorrow brought some gain.' For a father also when he sees his son under the knife rejoiceth not that he is being pained, but that he is being cured; so also doth this man, But observe how he transfers all that was well achieved in the matter unto themselves; and lays whatever was painful to the account of the Epistle, saying, "It made you sorry for a season;" whilst the benefit that resulted from it he speaks of as their own good achieving. For he said not, ' The Epistle corrected you,' although this was the case; but, "ye sorrowed unto repentance."

"For ye were made sorry after a godly sort, that ye might suffer loss by us in nothing."

Seest thou wisdom unspeakable? ' For had we not done this,' he says, 'we had done you damage.' And he affirms that indeed which was well achieved to be theirs, but the damage his own, if indeed he had been silent. For if they are likely to be corrected by a sharp rebuke, then, if we did not sharply rebuke, we should have done you damage; and the injury would not be with you alone, but also with us. For just as he that gives not to the merchant what is necessary for his voyage, he it is that causeth the damage; so also we, if we did not offer you that occasion(4) of repentance, should have wrought you damage. Seest thou that the not rebuking those that sin is a damage both to the master and to the disciple ?

[2.] Ver. 10. "For godly sorrow worketh repentance unto salvation, a repentance which bringeth no regret."

'Therefore.' he says, 'though I did regret before I saw the fruit and the gain, how great they were I do not regret now ' For such a thing is godly sorrow. And then he philosophizeth about it, showing that sorrow is not in all cases a grievous thing, but when it is worldly. And what is worldly? If thou be in sorrow for money, for reputation,for him that is departed, all these are worldly. Wherefore also they work death. For he that is in sorrow for reputation's sake feeleth envy and is driven oftentimes to perish: such sorrow was that which Cain sorrowed, such Esau. By this worldly sorrow then he meaneth that which is to the harm of those that sorrow. For only in respect to sins is sorrow a profitable thing; as is evident in this way. He that sorroweth for loss of wealth repaireth not that damage; he that sorroweth for one deceased raiseth not the dead to life again; he that sorroweth for a sickness, not only is not made well but even aggravates the disease: he that sorroweth for sins, he alone attains some advantage from his sorrow, for he maketh his sins wane and disappear. For since the medicine has been prepared for this thing, in this case only is it potent and displays its profitableness; and in the other cases is even injurious. 'And yet Cain,' saith one, 'sorrowed because he was not accepted with God.' It was not for this, but because he saw his brother glorious in honor(1); for had he grieved for this, it behoved him to emulate and rejoice with him; but, as it was, grieving, he showed that his was a worldly sorrow. But not so did David, nor Peter, nor any of the righteous. Wherefore they were accepted, when grieving either over their own sins or those of others. And yet what is more oppressive than sorrow? Still when it is after a godly sort, it is better than the joy in the world. For this indeed ends in nothing; but that "worketh repentance unto salvation, a salvation that bringeth no regret." For what is admirable in it is this that one who had thus sorrowed would never repent, whilst this is an especial characteristic of worldly sorrow. For what is mote regretted than a true born son? And what is a heavier grief than a death of this sort? But yet those fathers who in the height of their grief culture nobody and who wildly beat themselves, after a time repent because they have grieved immoderately; as having thereby nothing benefitted themselves, but even added to their affliction. But not such as this is godly sorrow; but it possesseth two advantages, that of not being condemned in that a man grieves for, and that this sorrow endeth in salvation; of both which that is deprived. For they both sorrow unto harm and after they have sorrowed vehemently condemn themselves, bringing forth this greatest token of having done it unto harm. But godly sorrow is the reverse [of this]: wherefore also he said, "worketh repentance unto salvation, a repentance that bringeth no regret." For no one will condemn himself if he have sorrowed for sin, if he have mourned and afflicted himself. Which also when the blessed Paul hath said he needeth not to adduce from other sources the proof of what he said, nor to bring forward those in the old histories who, sorrowed, but he adduceth the Corinthians themselves; and furnishes his proof from what they had done; that along with praises he might both instruct them and the rather win them to, himself.

Ver. 11. "For behold," he saith, "this self-same thing, that ye were made sorry after a godly sort, what earnest care it wrought in you." 'For not only,' he saith, 'did your sorrow not cast you into that condemning of yourselves, as having acted idly in so doing; but it made you even more careful.' Then he speaks of the certain tokens of that carefulness;

"Yea," what "clearing of yourselves," towards me. "Yea, what indignation" against him that had sinned. "Yea, what fear." (ver. 11.) For so great carefulness and very speedy reformation was the part of men who feared exceedingly. And that he might not seem to be exalting himself, see how quickly he softened it by saying,

"Yea, what longing," that towards me. "Yea, what zeal," that on God's behalf. "Yea, what avenging:" for ye also avenged the laws of God that had been outraged.

"In every thing ye approved yourselves to be pure in the matter." Not only by not having perpetrated, for this was evident before, but also by not consenting(2) unto it. For since he said in the former Epistle, "and ye are puffed up;" (1 Cor. v. 2.) he also says here, 'ye have cleared yourselves of this suspicion also; not only by not praising, but also by rebuking and being indignant.'

[3.] Ver. 12. "So although I wrote unto you," I wrote "not for his cause that did the wrong, nor for his cause that suffered the wrong." For that they might not say, Why then dost thou rebuke us if we were "clear in the matter?" setting himself to meet this even further above, and disposing of it beforehand(3), he said what he said, namely, "I donor regret, though I did regret." 'For so far,' says he, 'am I from repenting now of what I wrote then, that I repented then more than I do now when ye have approved(4) yourselves. Seest thou again his vehemence and earnest contention, how he has turned around what was said unto the very opposite. For what they thought would have made him recant(5) in confusion as having rebuked them hastily, by reason of their amendment; that he uses as a proof that it was right in him to speak freely. For neither does he refuse afterwards to humor them fearlessly, when he finds he can do this. For he that said farther above such things as these, "He that is joined to an harlot is one body," (1 Cor. vi. 16.) and, "Deliver such an one to Satan for the destruction of the flesh," (1 Cor. v. 5.) and, "Every sin that a man doeth is without the body," (1 Cor. vi. 18.)and such like things; how saith he here, "Not for his cause that did the wrong, nor for his cause that suffered the wrong?" Not contradicting, but being even exceedingly consistent with, himself. How consistent with himself? Because it was a very great point with him to show the affection he bore towards them. He does not therefore discard concern for him(1), but shows at the same time, as I said, the love he had for them, and that a greater fear agitated him, [namely] for the whole Church. For he had feared lest the evil should eat further, and advancing on its way should seize upon the whole Church. Wherefore also he said, "A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump." ( 1 Cor. v. 6.) This however he said at the time; but now that they had well done, he no longer puts it so but differently: and implies indeed the same thing, but manages his expressions more agreeably, saying,

"That our care for you might appear unto you.(2)"

That is, 'that ye might know how I love you.' Now this is the same thing as the former, but being differently expressed seemed to convey another meaning. For [to convince thyself] that it is the same, unfold his conception and thou wilt perceive the difference to be nothing. 'For because I love you exceedingly,' saith he, 'I was afraid lest ye should suffer any injury from that quarter, and yourselves succeed to that sorrow.' As therefore when he says, "Doth God take care for oxen?" (1 Cor. ix. 9.) he doth not mean that He careth not, (for it is not possible for any existing thing to consist if deserted by the Providence of God:) but that He did not legislate primarily for oxen, so also here he means to say, 'I wrote first indeed on your account, but secondly on his also. And I had indeed that love in myself,' he says, 'even independently of mine Epistle: but I was desirous of showing it both to you, and in a word to all, by that writing.'

Ver. 13. "Therefore we have been comforted."

Since we both showed our care for you and have been wholly successful. As he said also in another place, "Now we live, if ye stand fast in the Lord;" (1 Thess. iii. 8.)and again, "For what is our hope, or joy, or crown of rejoicing? are not even ye?" (ib. ii. 19.) For this is life, this comfort, this consolation to a teacher possessed of understanding; the growth a of his disciples.

[4.] For nothing doth so declare him that beareth rule as paternal affection for the ruled. For begetting alone constitutes not a father; but after begetting, also loving. But if where nature is concerned there is so great need of love, much more where grace is concerned. In this way were all the ancients distinguished. As many, for instance, as obtained a good report amongst the Hebrews, by this were made manifest. So was Samuel shown to be great, saying, "But God forbid that I should sin against God in ceasing to pray for you:" (1 Sam. xii. 23.) so was David, so Abraham, so Elijah, and so each one of the righteous, those in the New Testament and those in the Old. For so Moses for the sake of those he ruled left so great riches and treasures untold, "choosing to suffer affliction with the people of God," (Heb. xi. 25.) and before his appointment was leader of the people(4) by his actions. Wherefore also very foolishly did that Hebrew say to him, "Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us?" (Exod. ii. 14.) What sayest thou? Thou seest the actions and doubtest of the title? Just as if one seeing a physician using the knife excellently well, and succoring that limb in the body which was diseased, should say, 'Who made thee a physician and ordered thee to use the knife?' 'Art, my good Sir(5), and thine own ailment.' So too did his knowledge make him (i.e., Moses,) what he claimed to be. For ruling is an art, not merely a dignity, and an art above all arts. For if the rule of those without is an art and science superior to all other, much more this. For this rule is as much better than that, as that than the rest; yea, rather, even much more. And, if ye will, let us examine this argument more accurately. There is an art of agriculture, of weaving, of building; which are both very necessary and tend greatly to preserve our life. For others surely are but ancillary to these; the coppersmith's, the carpenter's, the shepherd's. But further, of arts themselves the most necessary of all is the agricultural, which was even that which God first introduced when He had formed man. For without shoes and clothes it is possible to live; but without agriculture it is impossible. And such they say are the Hamaxobii, the Nomads amongst the Scythians, and the Indian Gymnosophists. For these troubled not themselves(6) with the arts of house-building, and weaving, and shoemaking, but need only that of agriculture. Blush ye that have need of those arts that be superfluous, cooks, confectioners, embroiderers, and ten thousand other such people, that ye may live; blush ye that introduce vain refinements(1) into life; blush ye who are unbelievers, before those barbarians who have no need of art. For God made nature exceedingly independent, needing only a few things(2). However, I do not compel you nor lay it down for law that ye should live thus; but as Jacob asked. And what did he ask? "If the Lord will give me bread to eat and raiment to put on." (Gen. xxviii. 20.) So also Paul commanded, saying, "And having food and covering let us be therewith content." (1 Tim. vi. 8.) First then comes agriculture; second, weaving; and third after it, building; and shoemaking last of all; for amongst us at any rate there are many both servants and laborers who live without shoes. These, therefore, are the useful and necessary arts. Come, then, let us compare them with that of ruling. For I have therefore brought forward these that are of all most important, that when it shall have been seen to be superior to them, its victory over the rest may be unquestioned. Whereby then shall we show that it is more necessary than all? Because without it there is no advantage in these. And if you think good, let us leave mention of the rest and bring on the stage(3) that one which stands higher and is more important than any, that of agriculture. Where then will be the advantage of the many hands of your laborers. if they are at war with one another and plunder one another's goods? For, as it is, the fear of the ruler restrains them and protects that which is wrought by them; but if thou take this away, in vain is their labor. But if one examine accurately, he will find yet another rule which is the parent and bond of this. What then may this be? That according to which it behoveth each man to control and rule himself, chastising his unworthy passions, but both nourishing and promoting the growth of all the germs of virtue with all care.

For there are [these] species of rule; one, that whereby men rule peoples and states, regulating this the political life; which Paul denoting said, "Let every soul be subject to the higher powers; for there is no power but of God." (Rom. xiii. 1, 4.) Afterwards to show the advantage of this, he went on to say, that the ruler "is a minister of God for good;" and again, " he is a minister of God, and avenger to execute wrath on him that doeth evil."

A second there is whereby every one that hath understanding ruleth himself; and this also the Apostle further denoted(4), saying, "Wouldest thou have no fear of the power? do that which is good;" (Rom. xiii. 3.) speaking of him that ruleth himself.

[5.] Here, however, there is yet another rule, higher than the political rule. And what is this? That in the Church. And this also itself Paul mentions, saying, "Obey them that have the rule over you and submit to them; for they watch in behalf of your souls as they that shall give account." (Heb. xiii. 17.) For this rule is as much better than the political as heaven is than earth; yea rather, even much more. For, in the first place, it considers principally not how it may punish sins committed, but how, they may never be committed at all; next, when committed, not how it may remove the deceased [member], but how they may be blotted out. And of the things of this life indeed it maketh not much account, but all its transactions are about the things in heaven. "For our citizenship(5) is in heaven." (Phil. iii. 20.) And our life is here. "For our life," saith he, "is hid with Christ in God." (Col. iii. 3. ) And our prizes are there, and our race is for the crowns that be there. For this life is not dissolved after the end, but then shineth forth the more. And therefore, in truth, they who bear this rule have a greater honor committed to their hands, not only than viceroys but even than those themselves who wear diadems, seeing that they mould men in greater, and for greater, things. But neither he that pursueth political rule nor he that pursueth spiritual, will be able well to administer it, unless they have first ruled themselves as they ought, and have observed with all strictness the respective laws of their polity. For as the rule over the many is in a manner twofold, so also is that which each one exerts over himself. And again, in this point also the spiritual rule transcends the political, as what we have said proved. But one may observe certain also of the arts imitating rule; and in particular, that of agriculture. For just as the tiller of the soil is in a sort a ruler over the plants, clipping and keeping back(6) some, making others grow and fostering them: just so also the best rulers punish and cut off such as are wicked and injure the many; whilst they advance the good and orderly(7). For this cause also the Scripture likeneth rulers to vine-dressers. For what though plants utter no cry, as in states the injured do? nevertheless they still show the wrong by their appearance, withering, straitened for room by the worthless weeds. And like as wickedness is punished by laws, so truly here also by this art both badness of soil and degeneracy and wildness in plants, are corrected. For all the varieties of human dispositions we shall find here also, roughness, weakness, timidity, forwardness(1), steadiness(2): and some of them through wealth(3) luxuriating unseasonably, and to the damage of their neighbors, and others impoverished and injured; as, for instance, when hedges are raised to luxuriance at the cost of the neighboring plants; when other barren and wild trees, running up to a great height, hinder the growth of those beneath them. And like as rulers and kings have those that vex their rule with outrage and war; so also hath the tiller of the soil attacks of wild beasts, irregularity of weather, hail, mildew, great rain, drought, and all such things. But these things happen in order that thou mayest constantly look unto the hope of God's aid. For the other arts indeed hold their way(4) through the diligence of men as well; but this getteth the better as God determines the balance, and is throughout almost wholly dependent thereupon; and it needeth rains from above, and the admixture of weathers, and, above all, His Providence. "For neither is he that planteth any thing, nor he that watereth, but God that giveth the increase." (1 Cor. iii. 7.)

Here also there is death and life, and throes and procreation, just as with men. For here happen instances both of being cut off, and of bearing fruit, and of dying, and of being born (the same that was dead) over again, wherein the earth discourseth to us both variously and clearly of a resurrection. For when the root beareth fruit, when the seed shooteth, is not the thing a resurrection? And one might perceive a large measure of God's providence and wisdom involved in this rule, if one go over it point by point. But what I wished to say is that this [rule] is concerned with earth and plants; but ours with care of souls. And great as is the difference between plants and a soul; so great is the superiority of this to that. And the rulers of the present life again are as much inferior to that [rule], as it is better to have mastery over the willing than the unwilling. For this is also a natural rule; for truly in that case every thing is done through fear and by constraint; but here, what is done aright is of choice and purpose. And not in this point alone doth this excel the other, but in that it is not only a rule, but a fatherhood? so to speak; for it has the gentleness of a father; and whilst enjoining greater things, [still] persuades. For the temporal ruler indeed says, 'If thou committest adultery, thou hast forfeited thy life,' but this, shouldst thou look with unchaste eyes, threatens the highest punishments. For awful is this judgment court, and for the correction of soul, not of body only. As great then as the difference between soul and body, is that which separates this rule again from that. And the one indeed sitteth as judge of things that are open; yea, rather, not of all these even, but of such as can be fully proved; and ofttimes moreover, even in these dealeth treacherously(6), but this court instructeth those that enter it that He that judgeth in our case, will bring forward "all things naked and laid open," (Heb. iv. 13.) before the common theatre of the world, and that to be hidden will be impossible. So that Christianity keeps together this our life far more than temporal(7) laws. For if to tremble about secret sins makes a man safer than to fear for such as are open; and if to call him to account even for those offences which be less doth rather excite him unto virtue, than to punish the graver only; then it is easily seen that this rule, more than all others, welds(8) our life together.

[6.] But, if thou wilt, let us consider also the mode of electing the rulers; for here too thou shalt behold the difference to be great. For it is not possible to gain this authority by giving money, but by having displayed a highly virtuous character; and not as unto glory with men and ease unto himself, but as unto toils and labors and the welfare of the many, thus, (I say,) is he that hath been appointed inducted unto this rule. Wherefore also abundant is the assistance he enjoys from the Spirit. And in that case indeed the rule can go no further than to declare merely what is to be done; but in this it addeth besides the help derived from prayers and from the Spirit. But further; in that case indeed is not a word about philosophy, nor doth any sit to teach what a soul is, and what the world, and what we are to be hereafter, and unto what things we shall depart hence, and how we shall achieve virtue. Howbeit of contracts and bonds and money, there is much speech, but of those things not a thought; whereas in the Church one may see that these are the subjects of every discourse. Wherefore also with justice may one call it by all these names, a court of justice, and a hospital, and a school of philosophy, and a nursery of the soul, and a training course for that race that leadeth unto heaven. Further, that this rule is also the mildest of all, even though requiring greater strictness, is plain from hence. For the temporal ruler if he catch an adulterer straightway punishes him. And yet what is the advantage. of this? For this is not to destroy the passion, but to send away the soul with its wound upon it. But this ruler, when he hath detected, considers not how he shall avenge, but how extirpate the passion. For thou indeed dost the same thing, as if when there was a disease of the head, thou shouldest not stay the disease, but cut off the head. But I do not thus: but I cut off the disease. And I exclude him indeed from mysteries and hallowed precincts; but when I have restored him I receive him back again, at once delivered from that viciousness and amended by his repentance. 'And how is it possible,' saith one, 'to extirpate adultery?' It is possible, yea, very possible, if a man comes under these laws. For the Church is a spiritual bath, which wipeth away not filth of body, but stains of soul, by its many methods of repentance. For thou, indeed, both if thou let a man go unpunished hast made him worse, and if thou punish hast sent him away uncured: but I neither let him go unpunished, nor punish him, as thou, but both exact a satisfaction which becomes me, and set that right which hath been done. Wilt thou learn in yet another way how that thou indeed, though drawing swords and displaying flames to them that offend, workest not any considerable cure; whilst I, without these things, have conducted them to perfect health? But no need have I of arguments or words, but I bring forth earth and sea, and human nature itself, [for witnesses.] And inquire, before this court held its sittings, what was the condition of human affairs; how, not even the names of the good works which now are done, were ever heard of. For who braved death? who despised money? who was indifferent to glory? who, fleeing from the turmoils of life(1) , bade welcome to mountains and solitude, the mother of heavenly wisdom? where was at all the name of virginity? For all these things, and more than these, were the good work of this judgment court, the doings of this rule. Knowing these things then, and well understanding that from this proceedeth every benefit of our life, and the reformation of the world, come frequently unto the hearing of the Divine words, and our assemblies here, and the prayers. For if ye thus order yourselves, ye will be able, having displayed a deportment worthy of heaven, to obtain the promised good things; which may all we obtain, through the grace and love towards men of our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

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