Psalms Chapter 47

Magnus Dominus.

God is greatly to be praised for the establishment of his church.

47:1     A psalm of a canticle, for the sons of Core, on the second day of the week.
47:2     Great is the Lord, and exceedingly to be praised in the city of our God, in his holy mountain.
47:3     With the joy of the whole earth is mount Sion founded, on the sides of the north, the city of the great king.
47:4     In her houses shall God be known, when he shall protect her.
47:5     For behold the kings of the earth assembled themselves:  they gathered together.
47:6     So they saw, and they wondered, they were troubled, they were moved:
47:7     Trembling took hold of them.  There were pains as of a woman in labour.
47:8     With a vehement wind thou shalt break in pieces the ships of Tharsis.
47:9     As we have heard, so have we seen, in the city of the Lord of hosts, in the city of our God:  God hath founded it for ever.
47:10   We have received thy mercy, O God, in the midst of thy temple.
47:11   According to thy name, O God, so also is thy praise unto the ends of the earth:  thy right hand is full of justice.
47:12   Let mount Sion rejoice, and the daughters of Juda be glad; because of thy judgments, O Lord.
47:13   Surround Sion, and encompass her:  tell lye in her towers.
47:14   Set your hearts on her strength; and distribute her houses, that ye may relate it in another generation.
47:15   For this is God, our God unto eternity, and for ever and ever: he shall rule us for evermore.

Psalms Chapter 48

The folly of worldlings, who live on in sin, without thinking of death or hell.

Audite haec, omnes gentes.

48:1     Unto the end, a psalm for the sons of Core.
48:2     Hear these things, all ye nations:  give ear, all ye inhabitants of the world.
48:3     All you that are earthborn, and you sons of men:  both rich and poor together.
48:4     My mouth shall speak wisdom:  and the meditation of my heart understanding.
48:5     I will incline my ear to a parable; I will open my proposition on the psaltery.
48:6     Why shall I fear in the evil day?  the iniquity of my heel shall encompass me.

The iniquity of my heel. . .That is, the iniquity of my steps or ways: or the iniquity of my pride, with which as with the heel, I have spurned and kicked at my neighbours:  or the iniquity of y heel, that is, the iniquity in which I shall be found in death.  The meaning of this verse is, Why should I now indulge those passions and sinful affections, or commit now those sins, which will ause me so much fear and anguish in the evil day; when the sorrows of death shall compass me, and the perils of hell shall find me?

48:7     They that trust in their own strength, and glory in the multitude of their riches,

They that trust, etc. . .As much as to say, let them fear that trust in their strength or riches:  for they have great reason to fear:  seeing no brother or other man, how much a friend soever, an by any price or labour rescue them from death.

48:8     No brother can redeem, nor shall man redeem:  he shall not give to God his ransom,
48:9     Nor the price of the redemption of his soul:  and shall labour for ever,

And shall labour for ever, etc. . .This seems to be a continuation of the foregoing sentence:  as much as to say no man can by any price or ransom prolong his life, that so he may still ontinue to labour here, and live to the end of the world.  Others understand it of the eternal sorrows, and dying life of hell, which is the dreadful consequence of dying in sin.

48:10   And shall still live unto the end.
48:11   He shall not see destruction, when he shall see the wise dying: the senseless and the fool shall perish together:  And they shall leave their riches to strangers:

He shall not see destruction, etc. . .Or, shall he not see destruction? As much as to say, however thoughtless he may be of his death, he must not expect to escape; when even the wise and he good are not exempt from dying.

48:12   And their sepulchres shall be their houses for ever.  Their dwelling places to all generations:  they have called their lands by their names.

They have called, etc. . .That is, they have left their names on their graves, which alone remain of their lands.

48:13   And man when he was in honour did not understand; he is compared to senseless beasts, and is become like to them.
48:14   This way of theirs is a stumblingblock to them:  and afterwards they shall delight in their mouth.

They shall delight in their mouth. . .Notwithstanding the wretched way in which they walk, they shall applaud themselves with their mouths, and glory in their doings.

48:15   They are laid in hell like sheep:  death shall feed upon them. And the just shall have dominion over them in the morning; and their help shall decay in hell from their glory.

In the morning. . .That is, in the resurrection to a new life; when the just shall judge and condemn the wicked.  Ibid.  From their glory. . .That is, when their short-lived glory in this world hall be past, and be no more.

48:16   But God will redeem my soul from the hand of hell, when he shall receive me.
48:17   Be not thou afraid, when a man shall be made rick, and when the glory of his house shall be increased.
48:18   For when he shall die he shall take nothing away; nor shall his glory descend with him.
48:19   For in his lifetime his soul will be blessed:  and he will praise thee when thou shalt do well to him.
48:20   He shall go in to the generations of his fathers:  and he shall never see light.
48:21   Man when he was in honour did not understand:  he hath been compared to senseless beasts, and made like to them.

Psalms Chapter 49

Deus deorum.

The coming of Christ:  who prefers virtue and inward purity before the blood of victims.

49:1     A psalm for Asaph.  The God of gods, the Lord hath spoken:  and he hath called the earth.  From the rising of the sun, to the going down thereof:
49:2     Out of Sion the loveliness of his beauty.
49:3     God shall come manifestly:  our God shall come, and shall not keep silence.  A fire shall burn before him:  and a mighty tempest shall be round about him.
49:4     He shall call heaven from above, and the earth, to judge his people.
49:5     Gather ye together his saints to him:  who set his covenant before sacrifices.
49:6     And the heavens shall declare his justice:  for God is judge.
49:7     Hear, O my people, and I will speak:  O Israel, and I will testify to thee:  I am God, thy God.
49:8     I will not reprove thee for thy sacrifices:  and thy burnt offerings are always in my sight.
49:9     I will not take calves out of thy house:  nor he goats out of thy flocks.
49:10   For all the beasts of the woods are mine:  the cattle on the hills, and the oxen.
49:11   I know all the fowls of the air:  and with me is the beauty of the field.
49:12   If I should be hungry, I would not tell thee:  for the world is mine, and the fulness thereof.
49:13   Shall I eat the flesh of bullocks?  or shall I drink the blood of goats?
49:14   Offer to God the sacrifice of praise:  and pay thy vows to the most High.
49:15   And call upon me in the day of trouble:  I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.
49:16   But to the sinner God hath said:  Why dost thou declare my justices, and take my covenant in thy mouth?
49:17   Seeing thou hast hated discipline:  and hast cast my words behind thee.
49:18   If thou didst see a thief thou didst run with him:  and with adulterers thou hast been a partaker.
49:19   Thy mouth hath abounded with evil, and thy tongue framed deceits.
49:20   Sitting thou didst speak against thy brother, and didst lay a scandal against thy mother's son:
49:21   These things hast thou done, and I was silent.  Thou thoughtest unjustly that I should be like to thee:  but I will reprove thee, and set before thy face.
49:22   Understand these things, you that forget God; lest he snatch you away, and there be none to deliver you.
49:23   The sacrifice of praise shall glorify me:  and there is the way by which I will shew him the salvation of God.

Psalms Chapter 50

The repentance and confession of David after his sin.  The fourth penitential psalm.

Miserere.

50:1     Unto the end, a psalm of David,
50:2     When Nathan the prophet came to him, after he had sinned with Bethsabee.  [2 Kings 12.]
50:3     Have mercy on me, O God, according to thy great mercy.  And according to the multitude of thy tender mercies blot out my iniquity.
50:4     Wash me yet more from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin.
50:5     For I know my iniquity, and my sin is always before me.
50:6     To thee only have I sinned, and have done evil before thee:  that thou mayst be justified in thy words, and mayst overcome when thou art judged.
50:7     For behold I was conceived in iniquities; and in sins did my mother conceive me.
50:8     For behold thou hast loved truth:  the uncertain and hidden things of thy wisdom thou hast made manifest to me.
50:9     Thou shalt sprinkle me with hyssop, and I shall be cleansed:  thou shalt wash me, and I shall be made whiter than snow.
50:10   To my hearing thou shalt give joy and gladness:  and the bones that have been humbled shall rejoice.
50:11   Turn away thy face from my sins, and blot out all my iniquities.
50:12   Create a clean heart in me, O God:  and renew a right spirit within my bowels.
50:13   Cast me not away from thy face; and take not thy holy spirit from me.
50:14   Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation, and strengthen me with a perfect spirit.
50:15   I will teach the unjust thy ways:  and the wicked shall be converted to thee.
50:16   Deliver me from blood, O God, thou God of my salvation:  and my tongue shall extol thy justice.
50:17   O Lord, thou wilt open my lips:  and my mouth shall declare thy praise.
50:18   For if thou hadst desired sacrifice, I would indeed have given it:  with burnt offerings thou wilt not be delighted.
50:19   A sacrifice to God is an afflicted spirit:  a contrite and humbled heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.
50:20   Deal favourably, O Lord, in thy good will with Sion; that the walls of Jerusalem may be built up.
50:21   Then shalt thou accept the sacrifice of justice, oblations and whole burnt offerings:  then shall they lay calves upon thy altar.

Psalms Chapter 51

Quid gloriaris.

David condemneth the wickedness of Doeg, and foretelleth his destruction.

51:1     Unto the end, understanding for David,
51:2     When Doeg the Edomite came and told Saul:  David went to the house of Achimelech.
51:3     Why dost thou glory in malice, thou that art mighty in iniquity?
51:4     All the day long thy tongue hath devised injustice:  as a sharp razor, thou hast wrought deceit.
51:5     Thou hast loved malice more than goodness:  and iniquity rather than to speak righteousness.
51:6     Thou hast loved all the words of ruin, O deceitful tongue.
51:7     Therefore will God destroy thee for ever:  he will pluck thee out, and remove thee from thy dwelling place:  and thy root out of the land of the living.
51:8     The just shall see and fear, and shall laugh at him, and say:
51:9     Behold the man that made not God his helper:  But trusted in the abundance of his riches:  and prevailed in his vanity.
51:10   But I, as a fruitful olive tree in the house of God, have hoped in the mercy of God for ever, yea for ever and ever.
51:11   I will praise thee for ever, because thou hast done it:  and I will wait on thy name, for it is good in the sight of thy saints.

Psalms Chapter 52

Dixit insipiens.

The general corruption of man before the coming of Christ.

52:1     Unto the end, for Maeleth, understandings to David.  The fool said in his heart:  There is no God.

Maeleth. . .Or Machalath.  A musical instrument, or a chorus of musicians, for St. Jerome renders it, per chorum.

52:2     They are corrupted, and become abominable in iniquities:  there is none that doth good.
52:3     God looked down from heaven on the children of men:  to see if there were any that did understand, or did seek God.
52:4     All have gone aside, they are become unprofitable together, there is none that doth good, no not one.
52:5     Shall not all the workers of iniquity know, who eat up my people as they eat bread?
52:6     They have not called upon God:  there have they trembled for fear, where there was no fear.  For God hath scattered the bones of them that please men:  they have been confounded, ecause God hath despised them.

God hath scattered the bones, etc. . .That is, God has brought to nothing the strength of all those that seek to please men, to the prejudice of their duty to their Maker.

52:7     Who will give out of Sion the salvation of Israel?  when God shall bring back the captivity of his people, Jacob shall rejoice, and Israel shall be glad.

Psalms Chapter 53

A prayer for help in distress.

Deus, in nomine tuo.

53:1     Unto the end, in verses, understanding for David.
53:2     When the en of Ziph had come and said to Saul:  Is not David hidden with us?  [1 Kings 23.19]
53:3     Save me, O God, by thy name, and judge me in thy strength.
53:4     O God, hear my prayer:  give ear to the words of my mouth.
53:5     For strangers have risen up against me; and the mighty have sought after my soul:  and they have not set God before their eyes.
53:6     For behold God is my helper:  and the Lord is the protector of my soul.
53:7     Turn back the evils upon my enemies; and cut them off in thy truth.
53:8     I will freely sacrifice to thee, and will give praise, O God, to thy name:  because it is good:
53:9     For thou hast delivered me out of all trouble:  and my eye hath looked down upon my enemies.

Psalms Chapter 54

Exaudi, Deus.

A prayer of a just man under persecution from the wicked.  It agrees to Christ persecuted by the Jews, and betrayed by Judas.

54:1     Unto the end, in verses, understanding for David.
54:2     Hear, O God, my prayer, and despise not my supplication:
54:3     Be attentive to me and hear me.  I am grieved in my exercise; and am troubled,
54:4     At the voice of the enemy, and at the tribulation of the sinner. For they have cast iniquities upon me:  and in wrath they were troublesome to me.
54:5     My heart is troubled within me:  and the fear of death is fallen upon me.
54:6     Fear and trembling are come upon me:  and darkness hath covered me.
54:7     And I said:  Who will give me wings like a dove, and I will fly and be at rest?
54:8     Lo, I have gone far off flying away; and I abode in the wilderness.
54:9     I waited for him that hath saved me from pusillanimity of spirit, and a storm.
54:10   Cast down, O Lord, and divide their tongues; for I have seen iniquity and contradiction in the city.
54:11   Day and night shall iniquity surround it upon its walls:  and in the midst thereof are labour,
54:12   And injustice.  And usury and deceit have not departed from its streets.
54:13   For if my enemy had reviled me, I would verily have borne with it.  And if he that hated me had spoken great things against me, I would perhaps have hidden my self from him.
54:14   But thou a man of one mind, my guide, and my familiar,
54:15   Who didst take sweetmeats together with me:  in the house of God we walked with consent.
54:16   Let death come upon them, and let them go down alive into hell. For there is wickedness in their dwellings:  in the midst of them.

Let death, etc. . .This, and such like imprecations which occur in the psalms, are delivered prophetically; that is, by way of foretelling the punishments which shall fall upon the wicked rom divine justice, and approving the righteous ways of God:  but not by way of ill will, or uncharitable curses, which the law of God disallows.

54:17   But I have cried to God:  and the Lord will save me.
54:18   Evening and morning, and at noon I will speak and declare:  and he shall hear my voice.
54:19   He shall redeem my soul in peace from them that draw near to me: for among many they were with me.

Among many, etc. . .That is, they that drew near to attack me were many in company all combined to fight against me.

54:20   God shall hear, and the Eternal shall humble them.  For there is no change with them, and they have not feared God:
54:21   He hath stretched forth his hand to repay.  They have defiled his covenant,
54:22   They are divided by the wrath of his countenance, and his heart hath drawn near.  His words are smoother than oil, and the same are darts.

They are divided, etc. . .Dispersed, scattered, and brought to nothing, by the wrath of God; who looks with indignation on their wicked and deceitful ways.

54:23   Cast thy care upon the Lord, and he shall sustain thee:  he shall not suffer the just to waver for ever.
54:24   But thou, O God, shalt bring them down into the pit of destruction.  Bloody and deceitful men shall not live out half their days; but I will trust in thee, O Lord.

Psalms Chapter 55

A prayer of David in danger and distress.

Miserere mei, Deus.

55:1     Unto the end, for a people that is removed at a distance form the sanctuary:  for David, for an inscription of a title (or pillar) when the Philistines held him in Geth.
55:2     Have mercy on me, O God, for man hath trodden me under foot; all the day long he hath afflicted me fighting against me.
55:3     My enemies have trodden on me all the day long; for they are many that make war against me.
55:4     From the height of the day I shall fear:  but I will trust in thee.

The height of the day. . .That is, even at noonday, when the sun is the highest, I am still in danger.

55:5     In God I will praise my words, in God I have put my trust:  I will not fear what flesh can do against me.

My words. . .The words or promises God has made in my favour.

55:6     All the day long they detested my words:  all their thoughts were against me unto evil.
55:7     They will dwell and hide themselves:  they will watch my heel.  As they have waited for my soul,
55:8     For nothing shalt thou save them:  in thy anger thou shalt break the people in pieces.  O God,

For nothing shalt thou save them. . .That is, since they lie in wait to ruin my soul, thou shalt for no consideration favour or assist them, but execute thy justice upon them.

55:9     I have declared to thee my life:  thou hast set me tears in thy sight, As also in thy promise.
55:10   Then shall my enemies be turned back.  In what day soever I shall call upon thee, behold I know thou art my God.
55:11   In God will I praise the word, in the Lord will I praise his speech.  In God have I hoped, I will not fear what man can do to me.
55:12   In me, O God, are vows to thee, which I will pay, praises to thee:
55:13   Because thou hast delivered my soul from death, my feet from falling:  that I may please in the sight of God, in the light of the living.

Psalms Chapter 56

Miserere mei, Deus.  The prophet prays in his affliction, and praises God for his delivery.

56:1     Unto the end, destroy not, for David, for an inscription of a title, when he fled from Saul into the cave.  [1 Kings 24.]

Destroy not. . .Suffer me not to be destroyed.

56:2     Have mercy on me, O God, have mercy on me:  for my soul trusteth in thee.  And in the shadow of thy wings will I hope, until iniquity pass away.
56:3     I will cry to God the most high; to God who hath done good to me.
56:4     He hath sent from heaven and delivered me:  he hath made them a reproach that trod upon me.  God hath sent his mercy and his truth,
56:5     And he hath delivered my soul from the midst of the young lions. I slept troubled.  The sons of men, whose teeth are weapons and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword.
56:6     Be thou exalted, O God, above the heavens, and thy glory above all the earth.
56:7     They prepared a snare for my feet; and they bowed down my soul. They dug a pit before my face, and they are fallen into it.
56:8     My heart is ready, O God, my heart is ready:  I will sing, and rehearse a psalm.
56:9     Arise, O my glory, arise psaltery and harp:  I will arise early.
56:10   I will give praise to thee, O Lord, among the people:  I will sing a psalm to thee among the nations.
56:11   For thy mercy is magnified even to the heavens:  and thy truth unto the clouds.
56:12   Be thou exalted, O God, above the heavens:  and thy glory above all the earth.

Psalms Chapter 57

Si vere utique.

David reproveth the wicked, and foretelleth their punishment.

57:1     Unto the end, destroy not, for David, for an inscription of a title.
57:2     If in very deed ye speak justice:  judge right things, ye sons of men.
57:3     For in your heart you work iniquity:  your hands forge injustice in the earth.
57:4     The wicked are alienated from the womb; they have gone astray from the womb:  they have spoken false things.
57:5     Their madness is according to the likeness of a serpent:  like the deaf asp that stoppeth her ears:
57:6     Which will not hear the voice of the charmers; nor of the wizard that charmeth wisely.
57:7     God shall break in pieces their teeth in their mouth:  the Lord shall break the grinders of the lions.
57:8     They shall come to nothing, like water running down; he hath bent his bow till they be weakened.
57:9     Like wax that melteth they shall be taken away:  fire hath fallen on them, and they shall not see the sun.
57:10   Before your thorns could know the brier; he swalloweth them up, as alive, in his wrath.

Before your thorns, etc. . .That is, before your thorns grow up, so as to become strong briers, they shall be overtaken and consumed by divine justice, swallowing them up, as it were, alive n his wrath.

57:11   The just shall rejoice when he shall see the revenge:  he shall wash his hands in the blood of the sinner.

Shall wash his hands, etc. . .Shall applaud the justice of God, and take occasion from the consideration of the punishment of the wicked to wash and cleanse his hands from sin.

57:12   And man shall say:  If indeed there be fruit to the just:  there is indeed a God that judgeth them on the earth.

Psalms Chapter 58

Eripe me.

A prayer to be delivered from the wicked, with confidence in God's help and protection.  It agrees to Christ and his enemies the Jews.

58:1     Unto the end, destroy not, for David for an inscription of a title, when Saul sent and watched his house to kill him.  [1 Kings 19.]
58:2     Deliver me from my enemies, O my God; and defend me from them that rise up against me.
58:3     Deliver me from them that work iniquity, and save me from bloody men.
58:4     For behold they have caught my soul:  the mighty have rushed in upon me:
58:5     Neither is it my iniquity, nor my sin, O Lord:  without iniquity have I run, and directed my steps.
58:6     Rise up thou to meet me, and behold:  even thou, O Lord, the God of hosts, the God of Israel.  Attend to visit all the nations:  have no mercy on all them that work iniquity.
58:7     They shall return at evening, and shall suffer hunger like dogs: and shall go round about the city.
58:8     Behold they shall speak with their mouth, and a sword is in their lips:  for who, say they, hath heard us?
58:9     But thou, O Lord, shalt laugh at them:  thou shalt bring all the nations to nothing.
58:10   I will keep my strength to thee:  for thou art my protector:
58:11   My God, his mercy shall prevent me.
58:12   God shall let me see over my enemies:  slay them not, lest at any time my people forget.  Scatter them by thy power; and bring them down, O Lord, my protector:
58:13   For the sin of their mouth, and the word of their lips:  and let them be taken in their pride.  And for their cursing and lying they shall be talked of,
58:14   When they are consumed:  when they are consumed by thy wrath, and they shall be no more.  And they shall know that God will rule Jacob, and all the ends of the earth.
58:15   They shall return at evening and shall suffer hunger like dogs: and shall go round about the city.
58:16   They shall be scattered abroad to eat, and shall murmur if they be not filled.
58:17   But I will sing thy strength:  and will extol thy mercy in the morning.  For thou art become my support, and my refuge, in the day of my trouble.
58:18   Unto thee, O my helper, will I sing, for thou art God my defence:  my God my mercy.

Psalms Chapter 59

After many afflictions, the church of Christ shall prevail.

Deus, repulisti nos.

59:1     Unto the end, for them that shall be changed, for the inscription of a title, to David himself, for doctrine,
59:2     When he set fire to Mesopotamia of Syria and Sobal:  and Joab returned and slew of Edom, in the vale of the saltpits, twelve thousand men.
59:3     O God, thou hast cast us off, and hast destroyed us; thou hast been angry, and hast had mercy on us.
59:4     Thou hast moved the earth, and hast troubled it:  heal thou the breaches thereof, for it has been moved.
59:5     Thou hast shewn thy people hard things; thou hast made us drink the wine of sorrow.
59:6     Thou hast given a warning to them that fear thee:  that they may flee from before the bow:  That thy beloved may be delivered.
59:7     Save me with thy right hand, and hear me.
59:8     God hath spoken in his holy place:  I will rejoice, and I will divide Sichem; and will mete out the vale of tabernacles.
59:9     Galaad is mine, and Manasses is mine:  and Ephraim is the strength of my head.  Juda is my king:
59:10   Moab is the pot of my hope.  Into Edom will I stretch out my shoe:  to me the foreigners are made subject.

The pot of my hope. . .Or my watering pot.  That is, a vessel for meaner uses, by being reduced to serve me, even in the meanest employments.--Ibid.  Foreigners. . .So the Philistines are alled, who had no kindred with the Israelites; whereas the Edomites, Moabites, etc., were originally of the same family.

59:11   Who will bring me into the strong city?  who will lead me into Edom?
59:12   Wilt not thou, O God, who hast cast us off?  and wilt not thou, O God, go out with our armies?
59:13   Give us help from trouble:  for vain is the salvation of man.
59:14   Through God we shall do mightily:  and he shall bring to nothing them that afflict us.

Psalms Chapter 60

Exaudi, Deus.

A prayer for the coming of the kingdom of Christ, which shall have no end.

60:1     Unto the end, in hymns, for David.
60:2     Hear, O God, my supplication:  be attentive to my prayer.
60:3     To thee have I cried from the ends of the earth:  when my heart was in anguish, thou hast exalted me on a rock.  Thou hast conducted me;
60:4     For thou hast been my hope; a tower of strength against the face of the enemy.
60:5     In thy tabernacle I shall dwell for ever:  I shall be protected under the covert of thy wings.
60:6     For thou, my God, hast heard my prayer:  thou hast given an inheritance to them that fear thy name.
60:7     Thou wilt add days to the days of the king:  his years even to generation and generation.
60:8     He abideth for ever in the sight of God:  his mercy and truth who shall search?
60:9     So will I sing a psalm to thy name for ever and ever:  that I may pay my vows from day to day.

Psalms Chapter 61

Nonne Deo.

The prophet encourageth himself and all others to trust in God, and serve him.

61:1     Unto the end, for Idithun, a psalm of David.
61:2     Shall not my soul be subject to God?  for from him is my salvation.
61:3     For he is my God and my saviour:  he is my protector, I shall be moved no more.
61:4     How long do you rush in upon a man?  you all kill, as if you were thrusting down a leaning wall, and a tottering fence.
61:5     But they have thought to cast away my price; I ran in thirst: they blessed with their mouth, but cursed with their heart.
61:6     But be thou, O my soul, subject to God:  for from him is my patience.
61:7     For he is my God and my saviour:  he is my helper, I shall not be moved.
61:8     In God is my salvation and my glory:  he is the God of my help, and my hope is in God.
61:9     Trust in him, all ye congregation of people:  pour out your hearts before him.  God is our helper for ever.
61:10   But vain are the sons of men, the sons of men are liars in the balances:  that by vanity they may together deceive.

Are liars in the balances, etc. . .They are so vain and light, that if they are put into the scales, they will be found to be of no weight; and to be mere lies, deceit, and vanity.  Or, They are iars in their balances, by weighing things by false weights, and preferring the temporal before the eternal.

61:11   Trust not in iniquity, and cover not robberies:  if riches abound, set not your heart upon them.
61:12   God hath spoken once, these two things have I heard, that power belongeth to God,
61:13   And mercy to thee, O Lord; for thou wilt render to every man according to his works.

Psalms Chapter 62

Deus Deus meus, ad te.

The prophet aspireth after God.

62:1     A psalm of David while he was in the desert of Edom.
62:2     O God, my God, to thee do I watch at break of day.  For thee my soul hath thirsted; for thee my flesh, O how many ways!
62:3     In a desert land, and where there is no way, and no water:  so in the sanctuary have I come before thee, to see thy power and thy glory.
62:4     For thy mercy is better than lives:  thee my lips will praise.
62:5     Thus will I bless thee all my life long:  and in thy name I will lift up my hands.
62:6     Let my soul be filled as with marrow and fatness:  and my mouth shall praise thee with joyful lips.
62:7     If I have remembered thee upon my bed, I will meditate on thee in the morning:
62:8     Because thou hast been my helper.  And I will rejoice under the covert of thy wings:
62:9     My soul hath stuck close to thee:  thy right hand hath received me.
62:10   But they have fought my soul in vain, they shall go into the lower parts of the earth:
62:11   They shall be delivered into the hands of the sword, they shall be the portions of foxes.
62:12   But the king shall rejoice in God, all they shall be praised that swear by him:  because the mouth is stopped of them that speak wicked things.

Psalms Chapter 63

Exaudi Deus orationem.

A prayer in affliction, with confidence in God that he will bring to nought the machinations of persecutors.

63:1     Unto the end, a psalm for David.
63:2     Hear O God, my prayer, when I make supplication to thee:  deliver my soul from the fear of the enemy.
63:3     Thou hast protected me from the assembly of the malignant; from the multitude of the workers of iniquity.
63:4     For they have whetted their tongues like a sword; they have bent their bow a bitter thing,
63:5     To shoot in secret the undefiled.
63:6     They will shoot at him on a sudden, and will not fear:  they are resolute in wickedness.  They have talked of hiding snares; they have said:  Who shall see them?
63:7     They have searched after iniquities:  they have failed in their search.  Man shall come to a deep heart:

A deep heart. . .That is, crafty, subtle, deep projects and designs; which nevertheless shall not succeed; for God shall be exalted in bringing them to nought by his wisdom and power.

63:8     And God shall be exalted.  The arrows of children are their wounds:

The arrows of children are their wounds. . .That is, the wounds, stripes, or blows, they seek to inflict upon the just, are but like the weak efforts of children's arrows, which can do no xecution:  and their tongues, that is, their speeches against them come to nothing.

63:9     And their tongues against them are made weak.  All that saw them were troubled;
63:10   And every man was afraid.  And they declared the works of God, and understood his doings.
63:11   The just shall rejoice in the Lord, and shall hope in him:  and all the upright in heart shall be praised.

Psalms Chapter 64

God is to be praised in his church, to which all nations shall be called.

Te decet.

64:1     To the end, a psalm of David.  The canticle of Jeremias and Ezechiel to the people of the captivity, when they began to go out.

Of the captivity. . .That is, the people of the captivity of Babylon. This is not in the Hebrew, but is found in the ancient translation of the Septuagint.

64:2     A hymn, O God, becometh thee in Sion:  and a vow shall be paid to thee in Jerusalem.
64:3     O hear my prayer:  all flesh shall come to thee.
64:4     The words of the wicked have prevailed over us:  and thou wilt pardon our transgressions.
64:5     Blessed is he whom thou hast chosen and taken to thee:  he shall dwell in thy courts.  We shall be filled with the good things of thy house; holy is thy temple,
64:6     Wonderful in justice.  Hear us, O God our saviour, who art the hope of all the ends of the earth, and in the sea afar off.
64:7     Thou who preparest the mountains by thy strength, being girded with power:
64:8     Who troublest the depth of the sea, the noise of its waves.  The Gentiles shall be troubled,
64:9     And they that dwell in the uttermost borders shall be afraid at thy signs:  thou shalt make the outgoings of the morning and of the evening to be joyful.
64:10   Thou hast visited the earth, and hast plentifully watered it; thou hast many ways enriched it.  The river of God is filled with water, thou hast prepared their food:  for so is its preparation.
64:11   Fill up plentifully the streams thereof, multiply its fruits; it shall spring up and rejoice in its showers.
64:12   Thou shalt bless the crown of the year of thy goodness:  and thy fields shall be filled with plenty.
64:13   The beautiful places of the wilderness shall grow fat:  and the hills shall be girded about with joy,
64:14   The rams of the flock are clothed, and the vales shall abound with corn:  they shall shout, yea they shall sing a hymn.

Psalms Chapter 65

Jubilate Deo.

An invitation to praise God.

65:1     Unto the end, a canticle of a psalm of the resurrection.  Shout with joy to God, all the earth,
65:2     Sing ye a psalm to his name; give glory to his praise.
65:3     Say unto God, How terrible are thy works, O Lord! in the multitude of thy strength thy enemies shall lie to thee.
65:4     Let all the earth adore thee, and sing to thee:  let it sing a psalm to thy name.
65:5     Come and see the works of God; who is terrible in his counsels over the sons of men.
65:6     Who turneth the sea into dry land, in the river they shall pass on foot:  there shall we rejoice in him.
65:7     Who by his power ruleth for ever:  his eyes behold the nations; let not them that provoke him be exalted in themselves.
65:8     O bless our God, ye Gentiles:  and make the voice of his praise to be heard.
65:9     Who hath set my soul to live:  and hath not suffered my feet to be moved:
65:10   For thou, O God, hast proved us:  thou hast tried us by fire, as silver is tried.
65:11   Thou hast brought us into a net, thou hast laid afflictions on our back:
65:12   Thou hast set men over our heads.  We have passed through fire and water, and thou hast brought us out into a refreshment.
65:13   I will go into thy house with burnt offerings:  I will pay thee my vows,
65:14   Which my lips have uttered, And my mouth hath spoken, when I was in trouble.
65:15   I will offer up to thee holocausts full of marrow, with burnt offerings of rams:  I will offer to thee bullocks with goats.
65:16   Come and hear, all ye that fear God, and I will tell you what great things he hath done for my soul.
65:17   I cried to him with my mouth:  and I extolled him with my tongue.
65:18   If I have looked at iniquity in my heart, the Lord will not hear me.
65:19   Therefore hath God heard me, and hath attended to the voice of my supplication.
65:20   Blessed be God, who hath not turned away my prayer, nor his mercy from me.

Psalms Chapter 66

Deus misereatur.

A prayer for the propagation of the church.

66:1     Unto the end, in hymns, a psalm of a canticle for David.
66:2     May God have mercy on us, and bless us:  may he cause the light of his countenance to shine upon us, and may he have mercy on us.
66:3     That we may know thy way upon earth:  thy salvation in all nations.
66:4     Let people confess to thee, O God:  let all people give praise to thee.
66:5     Let the nations be glad and rejoice:  for thou judgest the people with justice, and directest the nations upon earth.
66:6     Let the people, O God, confess to thee:  let all the people give praise to thee:
66:7     The earth hath yielded her fruit.  May God, our God bless us,
66:8     May God bless us:  and all the ends of the earth fear him.

Psalms Chapter 67

Exurgat Deus.

The glorious establishment of the church of the New Testament, prefigured by the benefits bestowed on the people of Israel.

67:1     Unto the end, a psalm of a canticle for David himself.
67:2     Let God arise, and let his enemies be scattered:  and let them that hate him flee from before his face.
67:3     As smoke vanisheth, so let them vanish away:  as wax melteth before the fire, so let the wicked perish at the presence of God.
67:4     And let the just feast, and rejoice before God:  and be delighted with gladness.
67:5     Sing ye to God, sing a psalm to his name, make a way for him who ascendeth upon the west:  the Lord is his name.  Rejoice ye before him: but the wicked shall be troubled at his presence,

Who ascendeth upon the west. . .Super occasum.  St. Gregory understands it of Christ, who after his going down, like the sun, in the west, by his passion and death, ascended more lorious, and carried all before him.  St. Jerome renders it, who ascendeth, or cometh up, through the deserts.

67:6     Who is the father of orphans, and the judge of widows.  God in his holy place:
67:7     God who maketh men of one manner to dwell in a house:  Who bringeth out them that were bound in strength; in like manner them that provoke, that dwell in sepulchres.

Of one manner. . .That is, agreeing in faith, unanimous in love, and following the same manner of discipline.  It is verified in the servants of God, living together in his house, which is the hurch.  1 Tim. 3.15.--Ibid.  Them that were bound, etc. . .The power and mercy of God appears in his bringing out of their captivity those that were strongly bound in their sins:  and in restoring o his grace those whose behaviour had been most provoking; and who by their evil habits were not only dead, but buried in their sepulchres.

67:8     O God, when thou didst go forth in the sight of thy people, when thou didst pass through the desert:
67:9     The earth was moved, and the heavens dropped at the presence of the God of Sina, at the presence of the God of Israel.
67:10   Thou shalt set aside for thy inheritance a free rain, O God:  and it was weakened, but thou hast made it perfect.

A free rain. . .the manna, which rained plentifully from heaven, in favour of God's inheritance, that is, of his people Israel:  which was weakened indeed under a variety of afflictions, but as made perfect by God; that is, was still supported by divine providence, and brought on to the promised land.  It agrees particularly to the church of Christ his true inheritance, which is lentifully watered with the free rain of heavenly grace; and through many infirmities, that is, crosses and tribulations, is made perfect, and fitted for eternal glory.

67:11   In it shall thy animals dwell; in thy sweetness, O God, thou hast provided for the poor.

In it, etc. . .That is, in this church, which is thy fold and thy inheritance, shall thy animals, thy sheep, dwell:  where thou hast plentifully provided for them.

67:12   The Lord shall give the word to them that preach good tidings with great power.

To them that preach good tidings. . .Evangelizantibus.  That is, to the preachers of the gospel; who receiving the word from the Lord, shall with great power and efficacy preach hroughout the world the glad tidings of a Saviour, and of eternal salvation through him.

67:13   The king of powers is of the beloved, of the beloved; and the beauty of the house shall divide spoils.

The king of powers. . .That is, the mighty King, the Lord of hosts, is of the beloved, of the beloved; that is, is on the side of Christ, his most beloved son:  and his beautiful house, viz., the hurch, in which God dwells forever, shall by her spiritual conquests divide the spoils of many nations.  The Hebrew (as it now stands pointed) is thus rendered, The kings of armies have fled, hey have fled, and she that dwells at home (or the beauty of the house) shall divide the spoils.

67:14   If you sleep among the midst of lots, you shall be as the wings of a dove covered with silver, and the hinder parts of her back with the paleness of gold.

If you sleep among the midst of lots (intermedios cleros, etc.). . .Viz., in such dangers and persecutions, as if your enemies were casting lots for your goods and persons:  or in the midst of he lots, (intermedios terminos, as St. Jerome renders it,) that is, upon the very bounds or borders of the dominions of your enemies:  you shall be secure nevertheless under the divine protection; nd shall be enabled to fly away, like a dove, with glittering wings and feathers shining like the palest and most precious gold; that is, with great increase of virtue, and glowing with the fervour f charity.

67:15   When he that is in heaven appointeth kings over her, they shall be whited with snow in Selmon.

Kings over her. . .That is, pastors and rulers over his church, viz., the apostles and their successors.  Then by their ministry shall men be made whiter than the snow which lies on the top of he high mountain Selmon.

67:16   The mountain of God is a fat mountain.  A curdled mountain, a fat mountain.

The mountain of God. . .The church, which, Isa. 2.2, is called The mountain of the house of the Lord upon the top of mountains.  It is here called a fat and a curdled mountain; that is to ay, most fruitful, and enriched by the spiritual gifts and graces of the Holy Ghost.

67:17   Why suspect, ye curdled mountains?  A mountain in which God is well pleased to dwell:  for there the Lord shall dwell unto the end.

Why suspect, ye curdled mountains?. . .Why do you suppose or imagine there may be any other such curdled mountains?  You are mistaken:  the mountain thus favoured by God is but ne; and this same he has chosen for his dwelling for ever.

67:18   The chariot of God is attended by ten thousands; thousands of them that rejoice:  the Lord is among them in Sina, in the holy place.

The chariot of God. . .Descending to give his law on mount Sina:  as also of Jesus Christ his Son, ascending into heaven, to send from thence the Holy Ghost, to publish his new law, is ttended with ten thousands, that is, with an innumerable multitude of joyful angels.

67:19   Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive; thou hast received gifts in men.  Yea for those also that do not believe, the dwelling of the Lord God.

Led captivity captive. . .Carrying away with thee to heaven those who before had been the captives of Satan; and receiving from God the Father gifts to be distributed to men; even to hose who were before unbelievers.

67:20   Blessed be the Lord day by day:  the God of our salvation will make our journey prosperous to us.
67:21   Our God is the God of salvation:  and of the Lord, of the Lord are the issues from death.

The issues from death. . .The Lord alone is master of the issues, by which we may escape from death.

67:22   But God shall break the heads of his enemies:  the hairy crown of them that walk on in their sins.
67:23   The Lord said:  I will turn them from Basan, I will turn them into the depth of the sea:

I will turn them from Basan, etc. . .I will cast out my enemies from their rich possessions, signified by Basan, a fruitful country; and I will drive them into the depth of the sea:  and make uch a slaughter of them, that the feet of my servants may be dyed in their blood, etc.

67:24   That thy foot may be dipped in the blood of thy enemies; the tongue of thy dogs be red with the same.
67:25   They have seen thy goings, O God, the goings of my God:  of my king who is in his sanctuary.

Thy goings. . .Thy ways, thy proceedings, by which thou didst formerly take possession of the promised land in favour of thy people; and shalt afterwards of the whole world, which thou halt subdue to thy Son.

67:26   Princes went before joined with singers, in the midst of young damsels playing on timbrels.

Princes. . .The apostles, the first converters of nations; attended by numbers of perfect souls, singing the divine praises, and virgins consecrated to God.

67:27   In the churches bless ye God the Lord, from the fountains of Israel.

From the fountains of Israel. . .From whom both Christ and his apostles sprung.  By Benjamin, the holy fathers on this place understand St. Paul, who was of that tribe, named here a outh, because he was the last called to the apostleship.  By the princes of Juda, Zabulon, and Nephthali, we may understand the other apostles, who were of the tribe of Juda; or of the tribes of abulon, and Nephthali, where our Lord began to preach, Matt. 4.13, etc.

67:28   There is Benjamin a youth, in ecstasy of mind.  The princes of Juda are their leaders:  the princes of Zabulon, the princes of Nephthali.
67:29   Command thy strength, O God confirm, O God, what thou hast wrought in us.

Command thy strength. . .Give orders that thy strength may be always with us.

67:30   From thy temple in Jerusalem, kings shall offer presents to thee.
67:31   Rebuke the wild beasts of the reeds, the congregation of bulls with the kine of the people; who seek to exclude them who are tried with silver.  Scatter thou the nations that delight in ars:

Rebuke the wild beasts of the reeds. . .or the wild beasts, which lie hid in the reeds.  That is, the devils, who hide themselves in order to surprise their prey.  Or by wild beasts, are here nderstood persecutors, who, for all their attempts against the Church, are but as weak reeds, which cannot prevail against them who are supported by the strength of the Almighty.  The same are lso called the congregation of bulls (from their rage against the Church) who assemble together all their kine, that is, the people their subjects, to exclude if they can, from Christ and his nheritance, his constant confessors, who are like silver tried by fire.

67:32   Ambassadors shall come out of Egypt:  Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands to God.

Ambassadors shall come, etc. . .It is a prophecy of the conversion of the Gentiles, and by name of the Egyptians and Ethiopians.

67:33   Sing to God, ye kingdoms of the earth:  sing ye to the Lord:  Sing ye to God,
67:34   Who mounteth above the heaven of heavens, to the east.  Behold he will give to his voice the voice of power:

To the east. . .From mount Olivet, which is on the east side of Jerusalem.--Ibid.  The voice of power. . .That is, he will make his voice to be a powerful voice:  by calling from death to life, uch as were dead in mortal sin:  as at the last day he will by the power of his voice call all the dead from their graves.

67:35   Give ye glory to God for Israel, his magnificence, and his power is in the clouds.
67:36   God is wonderful in his saints:  the God of Israel is he who will give power and strength to his people.  Blessed be God.

Psalms Chapter 68

Salvum me fac, Deus.

Christ in his passion declareth the greatness of his sufferings, and the malice of his persecutors the Jews; and foretelleth their reprobation.

68:1     Unto the end, for them that shall be changed; for David.

For them that shall be changed. . .A psalm for Christian converts, to remember the passion of Christ.

68:2     Save me, O God:  for the waters are come in even unto my soul.

The waters. . .Of afflictions and sorrows.  My soul is sorrowful even unto death.  Matt. 26.38.

68:3     I stick fast in the mire of the deep and there is no sure standing.  I am come into the depth of the sea, and a tempest hath overwhelmed me.
68:4     I have laboured with crying; my jaws are become hoarse, my eyes have failed, whilst I hope in my God.
68:5     They are multiplied above the hairs of my head, who hate me without cause.  My enemies are grown strong who have wrongfully persecuted me:  then did I pay that which I took not way.

I pay that which I took not away. . .Christ in his passion made restitution of what he had not taken away, by suffering the punishment due to our sins, and so repairing the injury we had one to God.

68:6     O God, thou knowest my foolishness; and my offences are not hidden from thee:

My foolishness and my offences. . .which my enemies impute to me:  or the follies and sins of men, which I have taken upon myself.

68:7     Let not them be ashamed for me, who look for thee, O Lord, the Lord of hosts.  Let them not be confounded on my account, who seek thee, O God of Israel.
68:8     Because for thy sake I have borne reproach; shame hath covered my face.
68:9     I am become a stranger to my brethren, and an alien to the sons of my mother.
68:10   For the zeal of thy house hath eaten me up:  and the reproaches of them that reproached thee are fallen upon me.
68:11   And I covered my soul in fasting:  and it was made a reproach to me.
68:12   And I made haircloth my garment:  and I became a byword to them.
68:13   They that sat in the gate spoke against me:  and they that drank wine made me their song.
68:14   But as for me, my prayer is to thee, O Lord; for the time of thy good pleasure, O God.  In the multitude of thy mercy hear me, in the truth of thy salvation.
68:15   Draw me out of the mire, that I may not stick fast:  deliver me from them that hate me, and out of the deep waters.
68:16   Let not the tempest of water drown me, nor the deep water swallow me up:  and let not the pit shut her mouth upon me.
68:17   Hear me, O Lord, for thy mercy is kind; look upon me according to the multitude of thy tender mercies.
68:18   And turn not away thy face from thy servant:  for I am in trouble, hear me speedily.
68:19   Attend to my soul, and deliver it:  save me because of my enemies.
68:20   Thou knowest my reproach, and my confusion, and my shame.
68:21   In thy sight are all they that afflict me; my heart hath expected reproach and misery.  And I looked for one that would grieve together with me, but there was none:  and for one that ould comfort me, and I found none.
68:22   And they gave me gall for my food, and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.
68:23   Let their table become as a snare before them, and a recompense, and a stumblingblock.

Let their table, etc. . .What here follows in the style of an imprecation, is a prophecy of the wretched state to which the Jews should be reduced in punishment of their wilful obstinacy.

68:24   Let their eyes be darkened that they see not; and their back bend thou down always.
68:25   Pour out thy indignation upon them:  and let thy wrathful anger take hold of them.
68:26   Let their habitation be made desolate:  and let there be none to dwell in their tabernacles.
68:27   Because they have persecuted him whom thou hast smitten; and they have added to the grief of my wounds.
68:28   Add thou iniquity upon their iniquity:  and let them not come into thy justice.
68:29   Let them be blotted out of the book of the living; and with the just let them not be written.
68:30   But I am poor and sorrowful:  thy salvation, O God, hath set me up.
68:31   I will praise the name of God with a canticle:  and I will magnify him with praise.
68:32   And it shall please God better than a young calf, that bringeth forth horns and hoofs.
68:33   Let the poor see and rejoice:  seek ye God, and your soul shall live.
68:34   For the Lord hath heard the poor:  and hath not despised his prisoners.
68:35   Let the heavens and the earth praise him; the sea, and every thing that creepeth therein.
68:36   For God will save Sion, and the cities of Juda shall be built up.  And they shall dwell there, and acquire it by inheritance.

Sion. . .The catholic church.  The cities of Juda, etc., her places of worship, which shall be established throughout the world.  And there, viz., in this church of Christ, shall his servants well, etc.

68:37   And the seed of his servants shall possess it; and they that love his name shall dwell therein.

Psalms Chapter 69

Deus in adjutorium.

A prayer in persecution.

69:1     Unto the end, a psalm for David, to bring to remembrance that the Lord saved him.
69:2     O God, come to my assistance; O Lord, make haste to help me.
69:3     Let them be confounded and ashamed that seek my soul:
69:4     Let them be turned backward, and blush for shame that desire evils to me:  Let them be presently turned away blushing for shame that say to me:  'Tis well, 'tis well.

'T is well, 't is well. . .Euge, euge.  St. Jerome renders it, vah, vah! which is the voice of one insulting and deriding.  Some understand it as a detestation of deceitful flatterers.

69:5     Let all that seek thee rejoice and be glad in thee; and let such as love thy salvation say always:  The Lord be magnified.
69:6     But I am needy and poor; O God, help me.  Thou art my helper and my deliverer:  O lord, make no delay.

Psalms Chapter 70

In te, Domine.

A prayer for perseverance.

70:1     A psalm for David.  Of the sons of Jonadab, and the former captives.  In thee, O Lord, I have hoped, let me never be put to confusion:

Of the sons of Jonadab. . .The Rechabites, of whom see Jer. 35.  By this addition of the seventy-two interpreters, we gather that this psalm was usually sung in the synagogue, in the erson of the Rechabites, and of those who were first carried away into captivity.

70:2     Deliver me in thy justice, and rescue me.  Incline thy ear unto me, and save me.
70:3     Be thou unto me a God, a protector, and a place of strength:  that thou mayst make me safe.  For thou art my firmament and my refuge.
70:4     Deliver me, O my God, out of the hand of the sinner, and out of the hand of the transgressor of the law and of the unjust.
70:5     For thou art my patience, O Lord:  my hope, O Lord, from my youth.
70:6     By thee have I been confirmed from the womb:  from my mother's womb thou art my protector.  Of thee I shall continually sing:
70:7     I am become unto many as a wonder, but thou art a strong helper.
70:8     Let my mouth be filled with praise, that I may sing thy glory; thy greatness all the day long.
70:9     Cast me not off in the time of old age:  when my strength shall fail, do not thou forsake me.
70:10   For my enemies have spoken against me; and they that watched my soul have consulted together,
70:11   Saying:  God hath forsaken him:  pursue and take him, for there is none to deliver him.
70:12   O God, be not thou far from me:  O my God, make haste to my help.
70:13   Let them be confounded and come to nothing that detract my soul; let them be covered with confusion and blame that seek my hurt.
70:14   But I will always hope; and will add to all thy praise.
70:15   My mouth shall shew forth thy justice; thy salvation all the day long.  Because I have not known learning,

Learning. . .As much as to say, I build not upon human learning, but only on the power and justice of God.

70:16   I will enter into the powers of the Lord:  O Lord, I will be mindful of thy justice alone.
70:17   Thou hast taught me, O God, from my youth:  and till now I will declare thy wonderful works.
70:18   And unto old age and grey hairs:  O God, forsake me not, Until I shew forth thy arm to all the generation that is to come:  Thy power,
70:19   And thy justice, O God, even to the highest great things thou hast done:  O God, who is like to thee?
70:20   How great troubles hast thou shewn me, many and grievous:  and turning thou hast brought me to life, and hast brought me back again from the depths of the earth:
70:21   Thou hast multiplied thy magnificence; and turning to me thou hast comforted me.
70:22   For I will also confess to thee thy truth with the instruments of psaltery:  O God, I will sing to thee with the harp, thou holy one of Israel.
70:23   My lips shall greatly rejoice, when I shall sing to thee; and my soul which thou hast redeemed.
70:24   Yea and my tongue shall meditate on thy justice all the day; when they shall be confounded and put to shame that seek evils to me.

Psalms Chapter 71

Deus, judicium tuum.

A prophecy of the coming of Christ, and of his kingdom:  prefigured by Solomon and his happy reign.

71:1     A psalm on Solomon.
71:2     Give to the king thy judgment, O God, and to the king's son thy justice:  To judge thy people with justice, and thy poor with judgment.
71:3     Let the mountains receive peace for the people:  and the hills justice.
71:4     He shall judge the poor of the people, and he shall save the children of the poor:  and he shall humble the oppressor.
71:5     And he shall continue with the sun and before the moon, throughout all generations.
71:6     He shall come down like rain upon the fleece; and as showers falling gently upon the earth.
71:7     In his days shall justice spring up, and abundance of peace, till the moon be taken away.
71:8     And he shall rule from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth.
71:9     Before him the Ethiopians shall fall down:  and his enemies shall lick the ground.
71:10   The kings of Tharsis and the islands shall offer presents:  the kings of the Arabians and of Saba shall bring gifts:
71:11   And all kings of the earth shall adore him:  all nations shall serve him.
71:12   For he shall deliver the poor from the mighty:  and the needy that had no helper.
71:13   He shall spare the poor and needy:  and he shall save the souls of the poor.
71:14   He shall redeem their souls from usuries and iniquity:  and their names shall be honourable in his sight.
71:15   And he shall live, and to him shall be given of the gold of Arabia, for him they shall always adore:  they shall bless him all the day.
71:16   And there shall be a firmament on the earth on the tops of mountains, above Libanus shall the fruit thereof be exalted:  and they of the city shall flourish like the grass of the earth.

A firmament on the earth, etc. . .This may be understood of the church of Christ, ever firm and visible:  and of the flourishing condition of its congregation.

71:17   Let his name be blessed for evermore:  his name continueth before the sun.  And in him shall all the tribes of the earth be blessed:  all nations shall magnify him.
71:18   Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who alone doth wonderful things.
71:19   And blessed be the name of his majesty for ever:  and the whole earth shall be filled with his majesty.  So be it.  So be it.
71:20   The praises of David, the son of Jesse, are ended.

Are ended. . .By this it appears that this psalm, though placed here, was in order of time the last of those which David composed.

Psalms Chapter 72

The temptation of the weak, upon seeing the prosperity of the wicked, is overcome by the consideration of the justice of God, who will quickly render to every one according to his works.

Quam bonus Israel Deus.

72:1     A psalm for Asaph.  How good is God to Israel, to them that are of a right heart!
72:2     But my feet were almost moved; my steps had well nigh slipped.
72:3     Because I had a zeal on occasion of the wicked, seeing the prosperity of sinners.
72:4     For there is no regard to their death, nor is there strength in their stripes.
72:5     They are not in the labour of men:  neither shall they be scourged like other men.
72:6     Therefore pride hath held them fast:  they are covered with their iniquity and their wickedness.
72:7     Their iniquity hath come forth, as it were from fatness:  they have passed into the affection of the heart.

Fatness. . .Abundance and temporal prosperity, which hath encouraged them in their iniquity:  and made them give themselves up to their irregular affections.

72:8     They have thought and spoken wickedness:  they have spoken iniquity on high.
72:9     They have set their mouth against heaven:  and their tongue hath passed through the earth.
72:10   Therefore will my people return here and full days shall be found in them.

Return here. . .or hither.  The weak among the servants of God, will be apt often to return to this thought, and will be shocked when they consider the full days, that is, the long and rosperous life of the wicked; and will be tempted to make the reflections against providence which are set down in the following verses.

72:11   And they said:  How doth God know?  and is there knowledge in the most High?
72:12   Behold these are sinners; and yet, abounding in the world they have obtained riches.
72:13   And I said:  Then have I in vain justified my heart, and washed my hands among the innocent.
72:14   And I have been scourged all the day; and my chastisement hath been in the mornings.
72:15   If I said:  I will speak thus; behold I should condemn the generation of thy children.
If I said, etc. . .That is, if I should indulge such thoughts as these.

72:16   I studied that I might know this thing, it is a labour in my sight:
72:17   Until I go into the sanctuary of God, and understand concerning their last ends.
72:18   But indeed for deceits thou hast put it to them:  when they were lifted up thou hast cast them down.

Thou hast put it to them. . .In punishment of their deceits, or for deceiving them, thou hast brought evils upon them in their last end, which, in their prosperity they never apprehended.

72:19   How are they brought to desolation?  they have suddenly ceased to be:  they have perished by reason of their iniquity.
72:20   As the dream of them that awake, O Lord; so in thy city thou shalt bring their image to nothing.
72:21   For my heart hath been inflamed, and my reins have been changed:
72:22   And I am brought to nothing, and I knew not.
72:23   I am become as a beast before thee:  and I am always with thee.
72:24   Thou hast held me by my right hand; and by thy will thou hast conducted me, and with thy glory thou hast received me.
72:25   For what have I in heaven?  and besides thee what do I desire upon earth?
72:26   For thee my flesh and my heart hath fainted away:  thou art the God of my heart, and the God that is my portion for ever.
72:27   For behold they that go far from thee shall perish:  thou hast destroyed all them that are disloyal to thee.
72:28   But it is good for me to adhere to my God, to put my hope in the Lord God:  That I may declare all thy praises, in the gates of the daughter of Sion.

Psalms Chapter 73

A prayer of the church under grievous persecutions.

Ut quid, Deus.

73:1     Understanding for Asaph.  O God, why hast thou cast us off unto the end:  why is thy wrath enkindled against the sheep of thy pasture?
73:2     Remember thy congregation, which thou hast possessed from the beginning.  The sceptre of thy inheritance which thou hast redeemed: mount Sion in which thou hast dwelt.
73:3     Lift up thy hands against their pride unto the end; see what things the enemy hath done wickedly in the sanctuary.
73:4     And they that hate thee have made their boasts, in the midst of thy solemnity.  They have set up their ensigns for signs,

Their ensigns, etc. . .They have fixed their colours for signs and trophies, both on the gates, and on the highest top of the temple:  and they knew not, that is, they regarded not the sanctity f the place. This psalm manifestly foretells the time of the Machabees, and the profanation of the temple by Antiochus.

73:5     And they knew not both in the going out and on the highest top. As with axes in a wood of trees,
73:6     They have cut down at once the gates thereof, with axe and hatchet they have brought it down.
73:7     They have set fire to thy sanctuary:  they have defiled the dwelling place of thy name on the earth.
73:8     They said in their heart, the whole kindred of them together:  Let us abolish all the festival days of God from the land.
73:9     Our signs we have not seen, there is now no prophet:  and he will know us no more.
73:10   How long, O God, shall the enemy reproach:  is the adversary to provoke thy name for ever?
73:11   Why dost thou turn away thy hand:  and thy right hand out of the midst of thy bosom for ever?
73:12   But God is our king before ages:  he hath wrought salvation in the midst of the earth.
73:13   Thou by thy strength didst make the sea firm:  thou didst crush the heads of the dragons in the waters.

The sea firm. . .By making the waters of the Red Sea stand like firm walls, whilst Israel passed through:  and destroying the Egyptians called here dragons from their cruelty, in the same aters, with their king:  casting up their bodies on the shore to be stripped by the Ethiopians inhabiting in those days the coast of Arabia.

73:14   Thou hast broken the heads of the dragon:  thou hast given him to be meat for the people of the Ethiopians.
73:15   Thou hast broken up the fountains and the torrents:  thou hast dried up the Ethan rivers.

Ethan rivers. . .That is, rivers which run with strong streams.  This was verified in Jordan, Jos. 3, and in Arnon, Num. 21.14.

73:16   Thine is the day, and thine is the night:  thou hast made the morning light and the sun.
73:17   Thou hast made all the borders of the earth:  the summer and the spring were formed by thee.
73:18   Remember this, the enemy hath reproached the Lord:  and a foolish people hath provoked thy name.
73:19   Deliver not up to beasts the souls that confess to thee:  and forget not to the end the souls of thy poor.
73:20   Have regard to thy covenant:  for they that are the obscure of the earth have been filled with dwellings of iniquity.

The obscure of the earth. . .Mean and ignoble wretches have been filled, that is, enriched, with houses of iniquity, that is, with our estates and possessions, which they have unjustly cquired.

73:21   Let not the humble be turned away with confusion:  the poor and needy shall praise thy name.
73:22   Arise, O God, judge thy own cause:  remember thy reproaches with which the foolish man hath reproached thee all the day.
73:23   Forget not the voices of thy enemies:  the pride of them that hate thee ascendeth continually.

Psalms Chapter 74

Confitebimur tibi.

There is a just judgment to come:  therefore let the wicked take care.

74:1     Unto the end, corrupt not, a psalm of a canticle for Asaph.

Corrupt not. . .It is believed to have been the beginning of some ode or hymn, to the tune of which this psalm was to be sung.  St. Augustine and other fathers take it to be an admonition f the spirit of God, not to faint or fail in our hope:  but to persevere with constancy in good: because God will not fail in his due time to render to every man according to his works.

74:2     We will praise thee, O God:  we will praise, and we will call upon thy name.  We will relate thy wondrous works:
74:3     When I shall take a time, I will judge justices.

When I shall take a time. . .In proper times:  particularly at the last day, when the earth shall melt away at the presence of the great Judge: the same who originally laid the foundations of t, and as it were established its pillars.

74:4     The earth is melted, and all that dwell therein:  I have established the pillars thereof.
74:5     I said to the wicked:  Do not act wickedly:  and to the sinners: Lift not up the horn.
74:6     Lift not up your horn on high:  speak not iniquity against God.
74:7     For neither from the east, nor from the west, nor from the desert hills:
74:8     For God is the judge.  One he putteth down, and another he lifteth up:
74:9     For in the hand of the Lord there is a cup of strong wine full of mixture.  And he hath poured it out from this to that:  but the dregs thereof are not emptied:  all the sinners of the earth hall drink.
74:10   But I will declare for ever:  I will sing to the God of Jacob.
74:11   And I will break all the horns of sinners:  but the horns of the just shall be exalted.

Psalms Chapter 75

Notus in Judaea.

God is known in his church:  and exerts his power in protecting it.  It alludes to the slaughter of the Assyrians, in the days of king Ezechias.

75:1     Unto the end, in praises, a psalm for Asaph:  a canticle to the Assyrians.
75:2     In Judea God is known:  his name is great in Israel.
75:3     And his place is in peace:  and his abode in Sion:
75:4     There hath he broken the powers of bows, the shield, the sword, and the battle.
75:5     Thou enlightenest wonderfully from the everlasting hills.
75:6     All the foolish of heart were troubled.  They have slept their sleep; and all the men of riches have found nothing in their hands.
75:7     At thy rebuke, O God of Jacob, they have all slumbered that mounted on horseback.
75:8     Thou art terrible, and who shall resist thee?  from that time thy wrath.

From that time, etc. . .From the time that thy wrath shall break out.

75:9     Thou hast caused judgment to be heard from heaven:  the earth trembled and was still,
75:10   When God arose in judgment, to save all the meek of the earth.
75:11   For the thought of man shall give praise to thee:  and the remainders of the thought shall keep holiday to thee.
75:12   Vow ye, and pay to the Lord your God:  all you that are round about him bring presents.  To him that is terrible,
75:13   Even to him who taketh away the spirit of princes:  to the terrible with the kings of the earth.

Psalms Chapter 76

Voce mea.

The faithful have recourse to God in trouble of mind, with confidence in his mercy and power.

76:1     Unto the end, for Idithun, a psalm of Asaph.
76:2     I cried to the Lord with my voice; to God with my voice, and he gave ear to me.
76:3     In the days of my trouble I sought God, with my hands lifted up to him in the night, and I was not deceived.  My soul refused to be comforted:
76:4     I remembered God, and was delighted, and was exercised, and my spirit swooned away.
76:5     My eyes prevented the watches:  I was troubled, and I spoke not.
76:6     I thought upon the days of old:  and I had in my mind the eternal years.
76:7     And I meditated in the night with my own heart:  and I was exercised and I swept my spirit.
76:8     Will God then cast off for ever?  or will he never be more favourable again?
76:9     Or will he cut off his mercy for ever, from generation to generation?
76:10   Or will God forget to shew mercy?  or will he in his anger shut up his mercies?
76:11   And I said, Now have I begun:  this is the change of the right hand of the most High.
76:12   I remembered the works of the Lord:  for I will be mindful of thy wonders from the beginning.
76:13   And I will meditate on all thy works:  and will be employed in thy inventions.
76:14   Thy way, O God, is in the holy place:  who is the great God like our God?
76:15   Thou art the God that dost wonders.  Thou hast made thy power known among the nations:
76:16   With thy arm thou hast redeemed thy people the children of Jacob and of Joseph.
76:17   The waters saw thee, O God, the waters saw thee:  and they were afraid, and the depths were troubled.
76:18   Great was the noise of the waters:  the clouds sent out a sound. For thy arrows pass:
76:19   The voice of thy thunder in a wheel.  Thy lightnings enlightened the world:  the earth shook and trembled.
76:20   Thy way is in the sea, and thy paths in many waters:  and thy footsteps shall not be known.
76:21   Thou hast conducted thy people like sheep, by the hand of Moses and Aaron.

Psalms Chapter 77

Attendite.

God's great benefits to the people of Israel, notwithstanding their ingratitude.

77:1     Understanding for Asaph.  Attend, O my people, to my law:  incline your ears to the words of my mouth.
77:2     I will open my mouth in parables:  I will utter propositions from the beginning.

Propositions. . .Deep and mysterious sayings.  By this it appears that the historical facts of ancient times, commemorated in this psalm, were deep and mysterious:  as being figures of great ruths appertaining to the time of the New Testament.

77:3     How great things have we heard and known, and our fathers have told us.
77:4     They have not been hidden from their children, in another generation.  Declaring the praises of the Lord, and his powers, and his wonders which he hath done.
77:5     And he set up a testimony in Jacob:  and made a law in Israel.  How great things he commanded our fathers, that they should make the same known to their children:
77:6     That another generation might know them.  The children that should be born and should rise up, and declare them to their children.
77:7     That they may put their hope in God and may not forget the works of God:  and may seek his commandments.
77:8     That they may not become like their fathers, a perverse and exasperating generation.  A generation that set not their heart aright: and whose spirit was not faithful to God.
77:9     The sons of Ephraim who bend and shoot with the bow:  they have turned back in the day of battle.
77:10   They kept not the covenant of God:  and in his law they would not walk.
77:11   And they forgot his benefits, and his wonders that he had shewn them.
77:12   Wonderful things did he do in the sight of their fathers, in the land of Egypt, in the field of Tanis.
77:13   He divided the sea and brought them through:  and he made the waters to stand as in a vessel.
77:14   And he conducted them with a cloud by day:  and all the night with a light of fire.
77:15   He struck the rock in the wilderness:  and gave them to drink, as out of the great deep.
77:16   He brought forth water out of the rock:  and made streams run down as rivers.
77:17   And they added yet more sin against him:  they provoked the most High to wrath in the place without water.
77:18   And they tempted God in their hearts, by asking meat for their desires.
77:19   And they spoke ill of God:  they said:  Can God furnish a table in the wilderness?
77:20   Because he struck the rock, and the waters gushed out, and the streams overflowed.  Can he also give bread, or provide a table for his people?
77:21   Therefore the Lord heard, and was angry:  and a fire was kindled against Jacob, and wrath came up against Israel.
77:22   Because they believed not in God:  and trusted not in his salvation.
77:23   And he had commanded the clouds from above, and had opened the doors of heaven.
77:24   And had rained down manna upon them to eat, and had given them the bread of heaven.
77:25   Man ate the bread of angels:  he sent them provisions in abundance.
77:26   He removed the south wind from heaven:  and by his power brought in the southwest wind.
77:27   And he rained upon them flesh as dust:  and feathered fowls like as the sand of the sea.
77:28   And they fell in the midst of their camp, round about their pavilions.
77:29   So they did eat, and were filled exceedingly, and he gave them their desire:
77:30   they were not defrauded of that which they craved.  As yet their meat was in their mouth:
77:31   And the wrath of God came upon them.  And he slew the fat ones amongst them, and brought down the chosen men of Israel.
77:32   In all these things they sinned still:  and they behaved not for his wondrous works.
77:33   And their days were consumed in vanity, and their years in haste.
77:34   When he slew them, then they sought him:  and they returned, and came to him early in the morning.
77:35   And they remembered that God was their helper:  and the most high God their redeemer.
77:36   And they loved him with their mouth:  and with their tongue they lied unto him:
77:37   But their heart was not right with him:  nor were they counted faithful in his covenant.
77:38   But he is merciful, and will forgive their sins:  and will not destroy them.  And many a time did he turn away his anger:  and did not kindle all his wrath.
77:39   And he remembered that they are flesh:  a wind that goeth and returneth not.
77:40   How often did they provoke him in the desert:  and move him to wrath in the place without water?
77:41   And they turned back and tempted God:  and grieved the holy one of Israel.
77:42   They remembered not his hand, in the day that he redeemed them from the hand of him that afflicted them:
77:43   How he wrought his signs in Egypt, and his wonders in the field of Tanis.
77:44   And he turned their rivers into blood, and their showers that they might not drink.
77:45   He sent amongst them divers sorts of flies, which devoured them: and frogs which destroyed them.
77:46   And he gave up their fruits to the blast, and their labours to the locust.
77:47   And he destroyed their vineyards with hail, and their mulberry trees with hoarfrost.
77:48   And he gave up their cattle to the hail, and their stock to the fire.
77:49   And he sent upon them the wrath of his indignation:  indignation and wrath and trouble, which he sent by evil angels.
77:50   He made a way for a path to his anger:  he spared not their souls from death, and their cattle he shut up in death.
77:51   And he killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt:  the firstfruits of all their labour in the tabernacles of Cham.
77:52   And he took away his own people as sheep:  and guided them in the wilderness like a flock.
77:53   And he brought them out in hope and they feared not:  and the sea overwhelmed their enemies.
77:54   And he brought them into the mountain of his sanctuary:  the mountain which his right hand had purchased.  And he cast out the Gentiles before them:  and by lot divided to them their and by a line of distribution.
77:55   And he made the tribes of Israel to dwell in their tabernacles.
77:56   Yet they tempted, and provoked the most high God:  and they kept not his testimonies.
77:57   And they turned away, and kept not the covenant:  even like their fathers they were turned aside as a crooked bow.
77:58   They provoked him to anger on their hills:  and moved him to jealousy with their graven things.
77:59   God heard, and despised them, and he reduced Israel exceedingly as it were to nothing.
77:60   And he put away the tabernacle of Silo, his tabernacle where he dwelt among men.
77:61   And he delivered their strength into captivity:  and their beauty into the hands of the enemy.
77:62   And he shut up his people under the sword:  and he despised his inheritance.
77:63   Fire consumed their young men:  and their maidens were not lamented.
77:64   Their priests fell by the sword:  and their widows did not mourn.
77:65   And the Lord was awaked as one out of sleep, and like a mighty man that hath been surfeited with wine.
77:66   And he smote his enemies on the hinder parts:  he put them to an everlasting reproach.
77:67   And he rejected the tabernacle of Joseph:  and chose not the tribe of Ephraim:
77:68   But he chose the tribe of Juda, mount Sion which he loved.
77:69   And he built his sanctuary as of unicorns, in the land which he founded for ever.

As of unicorns. . .That is, firm and strong like the horn of the unicorn.  This is one of the chiefest of the propositions of this psalm, foreshewing the firm establishment of the one, true, and verlasting sanctuary of God, in his church.

77:70   And he chose his servant David, and took him from the flocks of sheep:  he brought him from following the ewes great with young,
77:71   To feed Jacob his servant and Israel his inheritance.
77:72   And he fed them in the innocence of his heart:  and conducted them by the skilfulness of his hands.

Psalms Chapter 78

Deus, venerunt gentes.

The church in time of persecution prayeth for relief.  It seems to belong to the time of the Machabees.

78:1     A psalm for Asaph.  O God, the heathens are come into thy inheritance, they have defiled thy holy temple:  they have made Jerusalem as a place to keep fruit.
78:2     They have given the dead bodies of thy servants to be meat for the fowls of the air:  the flesh of thy saints for the beasts of the earth.
78:3     They have poured out their blood as water, round about Jerusalem and there was none to bury them.
78:4     We are become a reproach to our neighbours:  a scorn and derision to them that are round about us.
78:5     How long, O Lord, wilt thou be angry for ever:  shall thy zeal be kindled like a fire?
78:6     Pour out thy wrath upon the nations that have not known thee:  and upon the kingdoms that have not called upon thy name.
78:7     Because they have devoured Jacob; and have laid waste his place.
78:8     Remember not our former iniquities:  let thy mercies speedily prevent us, for we are become exceeding poor.
78:9     Help us, O God, our saviour:  and for the glory of thy name, O Lord, deliver us:  and forgive us our sins for thy name's sake:
78:10   Lest they should say among the Gentiles:  Where is their God?  And let him be made known among the nations before our eyes, By the revenging the blood of thy servants, which hath een shed:
78:11   Let the sighing of the prisoners come in before thee.  According to the greatness of thy arm, take possession of the children of them that have been put to death.
78:12   And render to our neighbours sevenfold in their bosom:  the reproach wherewith they have reproached thee, O Lord.
78:13   But we thy people, and the sheep of thy pasture, will give thanks to thee for ever.  We will shew forth thy praise, unto generation and generation.

Psalms Chapter 79

Qui regis Israel.

A prayer for the church in tribulation, commemorating God's former favours.

79:1     Unto the end, for them that shall be changed, a testimony for Asaph, a psalm.
79:2     Give ear, O thou that rulest Israel:  thou that leadest Joseph like a sheep.  Thou that sittest upon the cherubims, shine forth
79:3     Before Ephraim, Benjamin, and Manasses.  Stir up thy might, and come to save us.
79:4     Convert us, O God:  and shew us thy face, and we shall be saved.
79:5     O Lord God of hosts, how long wilt thou be angry against the prayer of thy servant?
79:6     How long wilt thou feed us with the bread of tears:  and give us for our drink tears in measure?
79:7     Thou hast made us to be a contradiction to our neighbours:  and our enemies have scoffed at us.
79:8     O God of hosts, convert us:  and shew thy face, and we shall be saved.
79:9     Thou hast brought a vineyard out of Egypt:  thou hast cast out the Gentiles and planted it.
79:10   Thou wast the guide of its journey in its sight:  thou plantedst the roots thereof, and it filled the land.
79:11   The shadow of it covered the hills:  and the branches thereof the cedars of God.
79:12   It stretched forth its branches unto the sea, and its boughs unto the river.
79:13   Why hast thou broken down the hedge thereof, so that all they who pass by the way do pluck it?
79:14   The boar out of the wood hath laid it waste:  and a singular wild beast hath devoured it.
79:15   Turn again, O God of hosts, look down from heaven, and see, and visit this vineyard:
79:16   And perfect the same which thy right hand hath planted:  and upon the son of man whom thou hast confirmed for thyself.
79:17   Things set on fire and dug down shall perish at the rebuke of thy countenance.

Things set on fire, etc. . .So this vineyard of thine, almost consumed already, must perish, if thou continue thy rebukes.

79:18   Let thy hand be upon the man of thy right hand:  and upon the son of man whom thou hast confirmed for thyself.

The man of thy right hand. . .Christ.

79:19   And we depart not from thee, thou shalt quicken us:  and we will call upon thy name.
79:20   O Lord God of hosts, convert us and shew thy face, and we shall be saved.

Psalms Chapter 80

Exultate Deo.

An invitation to a solemn praising of God.

80:1     Unto the end, for the winepresses, a psalm for Asaph himself.

For the winepresses, etc. . .Torcularibus.  It either signifies a musical instrument, or that this psalm was to be sung at the feast of the tabernacles after the gathering in of the vintage.

80:2     Rejoice to God our helper:  sing aloud to the God of Jacob.
80:3     Take a psalm, and bring hither the timbrel:  the pleasant psaltery with the harp.
80:4     Blow up the trumpet on the new moon, on the noted day of your solemnity.
80:5     For it is a commandment in Israel, and a judgment to the God of Jacob.
80:6     He ordained it for a testimony in Joseph, when he came out of the land of Egypt:  he heard a tongue which he knew not.
80:7     He removed his back from the burdens:  his hands had served in baskets.
80:8     Thou calledst upon me in affliction, and I delivered thee:  I heard thee in the secret place of tempest:  I proved thee at the waters of contradiction.

In the secret place of tempest. . .Heb., Of thunder.  When thou soughtest to hide thyself from the tempest:  or, when I came down to mount Sina, hidden from thy eyes in a storm of hunder.

80:9     Hear, O my people, and I will testify to thee:  O Israel, if thou wilt hearken to me,
80:10   there shall be no new god in thee:  neither shalt thou adore a strange god.
80:11   For I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt:  open thy mouth wide, and I will fill it.
80:12   But my people heard not my voice:  and Israel hearkened not to me.
80:13   So I let them go according to the desires of their heart:  they shall walk in their own inventions.
80:14   If my people had heard me:  if Israel had walked in my ways:
80:15   I should soon have humbled their enemies, and laid my hand on them that troubled them.
80:16   The enemies of the Lord have lied to him:  and their time shall be for ever.

Their time shall be forever. . .Impenitent sinners shall suffer for ever.
80:17   And he fed them with the fat of wheat, and filled them with honey out of the rock.

Psalms Chapter 81

Deus stetit.

An exhortation to judges and men in power.

81:1     A psalm for Asaph.  God hath stood in the congregation of gods: and being in the midst of them he judgeth gods.
81:2     How long will you judge unjustly:  and accept the persons of the wicked?
81:3     Judge for the needy and fatherless:  do justice to the humble and the poor.
81:4     Rescue the poor; and deliver the needy out of the hand of the sinner.
81:5     They have not known nor understood:  they walk on in darkness:  all the foundations of the earth shall be moved.
81:6     I have said:  You are gods and all of you the sons of the most High.
81:7     But you like men shall die:  and shall fall like one of the princes.
81:8     Arise, O God, judge thou the earth:  for thou shalt inherit among all the nations.

Psalms Chapter 82

Deus, quis similis.

A prayer against the enemies of God's church.

82:1     A canticle of a psalm for Asaph.
82:2     O God, who shall be like to thee?  hold not thy peace, neither be thou still, O God.
82:3     For lo, thy enemies have made a noise:  and they that hate thee have lifted up the head.
82:4     They have taken a malicious counsel against thy people, and have consulted against thy saints.
82:5     They have said:  Come and let us destroy them, so that they be not a nation:  and let the name of Israel be remembered no more.
82:6     For they have contrived with one consent:  they have made a covenant together against thee,
82:7     The tabernacle of the Edomites, and the Ishmahelites:  Moab, and the Agarens,
82:8     Gebal, and Ammon and Amalec:  the Philistines, with the inhabitants of Tyre.
82:9     Yea, and the Assyrian also is joined with them:  they are come to the aid of the sons of Lot.
82:10   Do to them as thou didst to Madian and to Sisara:  as to Jabin at the brook of Cisson.
82:11   Who perished at Endor:  and became as dung for the earth.
82:12   Make their princes like Oreb, and Zeb, and Zebee, and Salmana. All their princes,
82:13   Who have said:  Let us possess the sanctuary of God for an inheritance.
82:14   O my God, make them like a wheel; and as stubble before the wind.
82:15   As fire which burneth the wood:  and as a flame burning mountains:
82:16   So shalt thou pursue them with thy tempest:  and shalt trouble them in thy wrath.
82:17   Fill their faces with shame; and they shall seek thy name, O Lord.
82:18   Let them be ashamed and troubled for ever and ever:  and let them be confounded and perish.
82:19   And let them know that the Lord is thy name:  thou alone art the most High over all the earth.

Psalms Chapter 83

Quam dilecta.

The soul aspireth after heaven; rejoicing in the mean time, in being in the communion of God's church upon earth.

83:1     Unto the end, for the winepresses, a psalm for the sons of Core.
83:2     How lovely are thy tabernacles, O Lord of hosts!
83:3     my soul longeth and fainteth for the courts of the Lord.  My heart and my flesh have rejoiced in the living God.
83:4     For the sparrow hath found herself a house, and the turtle a nest for herself where she may lay her young ones:  Thy altars, O Lord of hosts, my king and my God.
83:5     Blessed are they that dwell in thy house, O Lord:  they shall praise thee for ever and ever.
83:6     Blessed is the man whose help is from thee:  in his heart he hath disposed to ascend by steps,

In his heart he hath disposed to ascend by steps, etc. . .Ascensiones in corde suo disposuit.  As by steps men ascended to the temple of God situated on a hill; so the good Christian scends towards the eternal temple by certain steps of virtue disposed or ordered within the heart: and this whilst he lives as yet in the body, in this vale of tears, the place which man hath set:  hat is, which he hath brought himself to: being cast out of paradise for his sin.

83:7     In the vale of tears, in the place which he hath set.
83:8     For the lawgiver shall give a blessing, they shall go from virtue to virtue:  the God of gods shall be seen in Sion.
83:9     O Lord God of hosts, hear my prayer:  give ear, O God of Jacob.
83:10   Behold, O God our protector:  and look on the face of thy Christ.
83:11   For better is one day in thy courts above thousands.  I have chosen to be an abject in the house of my God, rather than to dwell in the tabernacles of sinners.
83:12   For God loveth mercy and truth:  the Lord will give grace and glory.
83:13   He will not deprive of good things them that walk in innocence: O Lord of hosts, blessed is the man that trusteth in thee.

Psalms Chapter 84

Benedixisti, Domine.

The coming of Christ, to bring peace and salvation to man.

84:1     Unto the end, for the sons of Core, a psalm.
84:2     Lord, thou hast blessed thy land:  thou hast turned away the captivity of Jacob.
84:3     Thou hast forgiven the iniquity of thy people:  thou hast covered all their sins.
84:4     Thou hast mitigated all thy anger:  thou hast turned away from the wrath of thy indignation.
84:5     Convert us, O God our saviour:  and turn off thy anger from us.
84:6     Wilt thou be angry with us for ever:  or wilt thou extend thy wrath from generation to generation?
84:7     Thou wilt turn, O God, and bring us to life:  and thy people shall rejoice in thee.
84:8     Shew us, O Lord, thy mercy; and grant us thy salvation.
84:9     I will hear what the Lord God will speak in me:  for he will speak peace unto his people:  And unto his saints:  and unto them that are converted to the heart.
84:10   Surely his salvation is near to them that fear him :  that glory may dwell in our land.
84:11   Mercy and truth have met each other:  justice and peace have kissed.
84:12   Truth is sprung out of the earth:  and justice hath looked down from heaven.
84:13   For the Lord will give goodness:  and our earth shall yield her fruit.
84:14   Justice shall walk before him:  and ,shall set his steps in the way.

Psalms Chapter 85

Inclina, Domine.

A prayer for God's grace to assist us to the end.

85:1     A prayer for David himself.  Incline thy ear, O Lord, and hear me: for I am needy and poor.
85:2     Preserve my soul, for I am holy:  save thy servant, O my God, that trusteth in thee.

I am holy. . .I am by my office and profession dedicated to thy service.

85:3     Have mercy on me, O Lord, for I have cried to thee all the day.
85:4     Give joy to the soul of thy servant, for to thee, O Lord, I have lifted up my soul.
85:5     For thou, O Lord, art sweet and mild:  and plenteous in mercy to all that call upon thee.
85:6     Give ear, O Lord, to my prayer:  and attend to the voice of my petition.
85:7     I have called upon thee in the day of my trouble:  because thou hast heard me.
85:8     There is none among the gods like unto thee, O Lord:  and there is none according to thy works.
85:9     All the nations thou hast made shall come and adore before thee, O Lord:  and they shall glorify thy name.
85:10   For thou art great and dost wonderful things:  thou art God alone.
85:11   Conduct me, O Lord, in thy way, and I will walk in thy truth: let my heart rejoice that it may fear thy name.
85:12   I will praise thee, O Lord my God, with my whole heart, and I will glorify thy name for ever:
85:13   For thy mercy is great towards me:  and thou hast delivered my soul out of the lower hell.
85:14   O God, the wicked are risen up against me, and the assembly of the mighty have sought my soul:  and they have not set thee before their eyes.
85:15   And thou, O Lord, art a God of compassion, and merciful, patient, and of much mercy, and true.
85:16   O look upon me, and have mercy on me:  give thy command to thy servant, and save the son of thy handmaid.
85:17   Shew me a token for good:  that they who hate me may see, and be confounded, because thou, O Lord, hast helped me and hast comforted me.

Psalms Chapter 86

The glory of the church of Christ.

Fundamenta ejus.

86:1     For the sons of Core, a psalm of a canticle.  The foundations thereof are the holy mountains:

The holy mountains. . .The apostles and prophets.  Eph. 2.20.

86:2     The Lord loveth the gates of Sion above all the tabernacles of Jacob.
86:3     Glorious things are said of thee, O city of God.
86:4     I will be mindful of Rahab and of Babylon knowing me.  Behold the foreigners, and Tyre, and the people of the Ethiopians, these were there.

Rahab. . .Egypt, etc.  To this Sion, which is the church of God, many shall resort from all nations.

86:5     Shall not Sion say:  This man and that man is born in her?  and the Highest himself hath founded her.

Shall not Sion say, etc. . .The meaning is, that Sion, viz., the church, shall not only be able to commemorate this or that particular person of renown born in her, but also to glory in great ultitudes of people and princes of her communion; who have been foretold in the writings of the prophets, and registered in the writings of the apostles.

86:6     The Lord shall tell in his writings of peoples and of princes, of them that have been in her.
86:7     The dwelling in thee is as it were of all rejoicing.

Psalms Chapter 87

Domine, Deus salutis.

A prayer of one under grievous affliction:  it agrees to Christ in his passion, and alludes to his death and burial.

87:1     A canticle of a psalm for the sons of Core:  unto the end, for Maheleth, to answer understanding of Eman the Ezrahite.

Maheleth. . .A musical instrument, or chorus of musicians, to answer one another.--Ibid.  Understanding. . .Or a psalm of instruction, composed by Eman the Ezrahite, or by David, in his ame.

87:2     O Lord, the God of my salvation:  I have cried in the day, and in the night before thee.
87:3     Let my prayer come in before thee:  incline thy ear to my petition.
87:4     For my soul is filled with evils:  and my life hath drawn nigh to hell.
87:5     I am counted among them that go down to the pit:  I am become as a man without help,
87:6     Free among the dead.  Like the slain sleeping in the sepulchres, whom thou rememberest no more:  and they are cut off from thy hand.
87:7     They have laid me in the lower pit:  in the dark places, and in the shadow of death.
87:8     Thy wrath is strong over me:  and all thy waves thou hast brought in upon me.
87:9     Thou hast put away my acquaintance far from me:  they have set me an abomination to themselves.  I was delivered up, and came not forth:
87:10   My eyes languished through poverty.  All the day I cried to thee, O Lord:  I stretched out my hands to thee.
87:11   Wilt thou shew wonders to the dead?  or shall physicians raise to life, and give praise to thee?
87:12   Shall any one in the sepulchre declare thy mercy:  and thy truth in destruction?
87:13   Shall thy wonders be known in the dark; and thy justice in the land of forgetfulness?
87:14   But I, O Lord, have cried to thee:  and in the morning my prayer shall prevent thee.
87:15   Lord, why castest thou off my prayer:  why turnest thou away thy face from me?
87:16   I am poor, and in labours from my youth:  and being exalted have been humbled and troubled.
87:17   Thy wrath hath come upon me:  and thy terrors have troubled me.
87:18   They have come round about me like water all the day:  they have compassed me about together.
87:19   Friend and neighbour thou hast put far from me:  and my acquaintance, because of misery.

Psalms Chapter 88

Misericordias Domini.

The perpetuity of the church of Christ, in consequence of the promise of God:  which, notwithstanding, God permits her to suffer sometimes most grievous afflictions.

88:1     Of understanding, for Ethan the Ezrahite.
88:2     The mercies of the Lord I will sing for ever.  I will shew forth thy truth with my mouth to generation and generation.
88:3     For thou hast said:  Mercy shall be built up for ever in the heavens:  thy truth shall be prepared in them.
88:4     I have made a covenant with my elect:  I have sworn to David my servant:
88:5     Thy seed will I settle for ever.  And I will build up thy throne unto generation and generation.
88:6     The heavens shall confess thy wonders, O Lord:  and thy truth in the church of the saints.
88:7     For who in the clouds can be compared to the Lord:  or who among the sons of God shall be like to God?
88:8     God, who is glorified in the assembly of the saints:  great and terrible above all them that are about him.
88:9     O Lord God of hosts, who is like to thee?  thou art mighty, O Lord, and thy truth is round about thee.
88:10   Thou rulest the power of the sea:  and appeasest the motion of the waves thereof.
88:11   Thou hast humbled the proud one, as one that is slain:  with the arm of thy strength thou hast scattered thy enemies.
88:12   Thine are the heavens, and thine is the earth:  the world and the fulness thereof thou hast founded:
88:13   The north and the sea thou hast created.  Thabor and Hermon shall rejoice in thy name:
88:14   Thy arm is with might.  Let thy hand be strengthened, and thy right hand exalted:
88:15   Justice and judgment are the preparation of thy throne.  Mercy and truth shall go before thy face:
88:16   Blessed is the people that knoweth jubilation.  They shall walk, O Lord, in the light of thy countenance:
88:17   And in thy name they shall rejoice all the day, and in thy justice they shall be exalted.
88:18   For thou art the glory of their strength:  and in thy good pleasure shall our horn be exalted.
88:19   For our protection is of the Lord, and of our king the holy one of Israel.
88:20   Then thou spokest in a vision to thy saints, and saidst:  I have laid help upon one that is mighty, and have exalted one chosen out of my people.
88:21   I have found David my servant:  with my holy oil I have anointed him.
88:22   For my hand shall help him:  and my arm shall strengthen him.
88:23   The enemy shall have no advantage over him:  nor the son of iniquity have power to hurt him.
88:24   And I will cut down his enemies before his face; and them that hate him I will put to flight.
88:25   And my truth and my mercy shall be with him:  and in my name shall his horn be exalted.
88:26   And I will set his hand in the sea; and his right hand in the rivers.
88:27   He shall cry out to me:  Thou art my father:  my God, and the support of my salvation.
88:28   And I will make him my firstborn, high above the kings of the earth.
88:29   I will keep my mercy for him for ever:  and my covenant faithful to him.
88:30   And I will make his seed to endure for evermore:  and his throne as the days of heaven.
88:31   And if his children forsake my law, and walk not in my judgments:
88:32   If they profane my justices:  and keep not my commandments:
88:33   I will visit their iniquities with a rod and their sins with stripes.
88:34   But my mercy I will not take away from him:  nor will I suffer my truth to fail.
88:35   Neither will I profane my covenant:  and the words that proceed from my mouth I will not make void.
88:36   Once have I sworn by my holiness:  I will not lie unto David:
88:37   His seed shall endure for ever.
88:38   And his throne as the sun before me:  and as the moon perfect for ever, and a faithful witness in heaven.
88:39   But thou hast rejected and despised:  thou hast been angry with my anointed.
88:40   Thou hast overthrown the covenant of thy servant:  thou hast profaned his sanctuary on the earth.

Overthrown the covenant, etc. . .All this seems to relate to the time of the captivity of Babylon, in which, for the sins of the people and their princes, God seemed to have set aside for a hile the covenant he made with David.

88:41   Thou hast broken down all his hedges:  thou hast made his strength fear.
88:42   All that pass by the way have robbed him:  he is become a reproach to his neighbours.
88:43   Thou hast set up the right hand of them that oppress him:  thou hast made all his enemies to rejoice.
88:44   Thou hast turned away the help of his sword; and hast not assisted him in battle.
88:45   Thou hast made his purification to cease:  and thou hast cast his throne down to the ground.
88:46   Thou hast shortened the days of his time:  thou hast covered him with confusion.
88:47   How long, O Lord, turnest thou away unto the end?  shall thy anger burn like fire?
88:48   Remember what my substance is:  for hast thou made all the children of men in vain?
88:49   Who is the man that shall live, and not see death:  that shall deliver his soul from the hand of hell?
88:50   Lord, where are thy ancient mercies, according to what thou didst swear to David in thy truth?
88:51   Be mindful, O Lord, of the reproach of thy servants (which I have held in my bosom) of many nations:
88:52   Wherewith thy enemies have reproached, O Lord; wherewith they have reproached the change of thy anointed.
88:53   Blessed be the Lord for evermore.  So be it.  So be it.

Psalms Chapter 89

A prayer for the mercy of God:  recounting the shortness and miseries of the days of man.

Domine, refugium.

89:1     A prayer of Moses the man of God.  Lord, thou hast been our refuge from generation to generation.
89:2     Before the mountains were made, or the earth and the world was formed; from eternity and to eternity thou art God.
89:3     Turn not man away to be brought low:  and thou hast said:  Be converted, O ye sons of men.

Turn not man away, etc. . .Suffer him not quite to perish from thee, since thou art pleased to call upon him to be converted to thee.

89:4     For a thousand years in thy sight are as yesterday, which is past.  And as a watch in the night,
89:5     Things that are counted nothing, shall their years be.
89:6     In the morning man shall grow up like grass; in the morning he shall flourish and pass away:  in the evening he shall fall, grow dry, and wither.
89:7     For in thy wrath we have fainted away:  and are troubled in thy indignation.
89:8     Thou hast set our iniquities before thy eyes:  our life in the light of thy countenance.
89:9     For all our days are spent; and in thy wrath we have fainted away.  Our years shall be considered as a spider:

As a spider. . .As frail and weak as a spider's web; and miserable withal, whilst like a spider we spend our bowels in weaving webs to catch flies.

89:10   The days of our years in them are threescore and ten years.  But if in the strong they be fourscore years:  and what is more of them is labour and sorrow.  For mildness is come upon us:  nd we shall be corrected.

Mildness is come upon us, etc. . .God's mildness corrects us; inasmuch as he deals kindly with us, in shortening the days of this miserable life; and so weaning our affections from all its ransitory enjoyments, and teaching us true wisdom.

89:11   Who knoweth the power of thy anger, and for thy fear
89:12   Can number thy wrath?  So make thy right hand known:  and men learned in heart, in wisdom.
89:13   Return, O Lord, how long?  and be entreated in favour of thy servants.
89:14   We are filled in the morning with thy mercy:  and we have rejoiced, and are delighted all our days.
89:15   We have rejoiced for the days in which thou hast humbled us:  for the years in which we have seen evils.
89:16   Look upon thy servants and upon their works:  and direct their children.
89:17   And let the brightness of the Lord our God be upon us:  and direct thou the works of our hands over us; yea, the work of our hands do thou direct.

 

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